Srimad Bhagavat Geetha – Chapter 6 – ध्यान योगा – Yoga of Meditation (part 5)

ज्ञानविज्ञानतृप्तात्मा कूटस्थो विजितेन्द्रियः ।

युक्त इत्युच्यते योगी समलोष्टाश्मकाञ्चनः ॥ ८ ॥ (6.8)

One whose mind has become contented with knowledge and experience, who remains unperturbed, whose organs are under control, to whom a lump of earth, a stone and gold are equal is said to be yogi poised in Yoga.

ज्ञान, knowledge means the knowledge arising from instructions about the meaning of the subjects presented in the sastras.

Or as Sankara puts it: ज्ञानं शास्त्रोक्तपदार्थानां परिज्ञानम्, ‘knowledge’ means conversance with the principles enunciated in the sastras.

विज्ञान, is the realization, through one’s own direct experience, of those subjects to be really so, as a result of विचार (inquiry) which culminates in the removal of the doubt that they are invalid.

To quote Adi Sankara again: विज्ञानं तु शास्त्रतो ज्ञातानां तथैव स्वानुभवकरणम्, on the other hand, ‘experience’ means the exact realization of whatever has been learnt from the sastras.

One whose आत्मा, mind; has become त्र्प्त, contented, has attained the conviction that fulfilment has been achieved, with those two is said to be a ज्ञान-विज्ञान-तृप्त-आत्मा,  कूटस्थ: means one who remains unperturbed even in the proximity of objects; and hence he is विजितेन्द्रियः, one whose organs (इन्द्रिय) are under control (विजित), turned away from receiving objects out of attraction and aversion; and for this very reason he is सम-लोष्ट-अश्म-काञ्चनः, one to whom a lump of earth (लोष्ट), a stone (अश्म) and gold (काञ्चन) are equal (सम), on account of his being free from the ideas of acceptability and non-acceptability.

Such a one इति उच्यते, is said to be; a yogi of परमहंस class, युक्त:, poised in Yoga, imbued with परवैराग्य, one who has ascended to Yoga.

Sri Krishna says that one having the same feeling towards a selfless benefactor, a well-wisher and others is however highest among all yogis.

सुहृन्मित्रार्युदासीनमध्यस्थद्वेष्यबन्धुषु ।
साधुष्वपि च पापेषु समबुद्धिर्विशिष्यते ॥ ९ ॥ (6.9)

He excels whose intellect is equally same in respect of good men, friends, foes, indifferent persons, neutrals, antagonists, relations, the dhaarmic and the adharmic.

Now let’s turn to Sankara Bhaashya: सुहृत् इति प्रत्युपकारमनपेक्ष्य उपकर्ता, मित्रं स्नेहवान्, अरिः शत्रुः, उदासीनः न कस्यचित् पक्षं भजते, मध्यस्थः यो विरुद्धयोः उभयोः हितैषी, द्वेष्यः आत्मनः अप्रियः, बन्धुः सम्बन्धी इत्येतेषु साधुषु शास्त्रानुवर्तिषु अपि च पापेषु प्रतिषिद्धकारिषु सर्वेषु एतेषु समबुद्धिः ‘कः किंकर्मा’ इत्यव्यापृतबुद्धिरित्यर्थः । विशिष्यते, ‘विमुच्यते’ इति वा पाठान्तरम् । योगारूढानां सर्वेषाम् अयम् उत्तम इत्यर्थः ॥

“The ‘good man’ helps, regardless of any requittal. ‘The friend’ is one who is affectionate.

‘The foe’ is the adversary. ‘The indifferent’ takes no sides. ‘The neutral’ seeks the well being of both who oppose each other.

‘The antagonist’ is he whom one does not like. ‘The relations’ are both kith and kin.

In regard to all these, as also to the dhaarmic who conform to the sastras and to the adharmic who do evil, he excels whose intellectual attitude is the same, who does not bother about what another is and does.

Another reading for ‘excels’ is विमुच्यते, meaning ‘is liberated’.

The idea is that this kind of person is the foremost among all those who have scaled Yoga’s peak.”

सुहृत् is one who is a benefactor without expectation of any service in return and even without previous affection and relationship.

मित्र is one who does good out of affection. अरि is a person who, because of ingrained cruelty, does evil to one irrespective of any harm done to him. A sadist.

उदासीन is one who is indifferent to both the disputants.

मध्यस्थ is an orbiter who is a well-wisher of both the disputants.

द्वेष्य is a person who does harm to a person in return for the harm done by him.

बन्धु is one who does good on account of a relationship.

Towards these, and साधुषु, towards good people, who act according to sastra; च. and;

पापेषु अपि, towards even sinners, who violate the sastra; by the use of the च. and, is to be understood ‘towards all others as well’

समबुद्धि: one who is equally disposed, one whose mind is not concerned with who a person is or of what kind his actions are, one who is devoid of attraction and aversion under all conditions;

विशिष्यते, excels, becomes the best of all. If the reading is विमुच्यते, becomes liberated.


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