Srimad Bhagavat Geetha – Chapter 6 – ध्यान योगा – Yoga of Meditation (part 12)

The four समाधिः viz. वितर्क, विचार, आनन्द and अस्मिता known as संप्रज्ञात-समाधि are also known as सबीज-समाधि since they occur in association with the बीज, i.e. object of perception.”

This was stated before in Yoga Sutra 1.17: वितर्कविचारानन्दास्मितारूपानुगमात्सम्प्रज्ञातः॥१७॥ and Yoga Sutra 1.46: ता एव सबीज: समाधिः॥४६॥

सवितर्क and निर्वितर्क are concerned with gross objects while सविचार and निर्विचार are concerned with subtle objects.

निर्विचारवैशारद्येऽध्यात्मप्रसादः॥४७॥ (Yoga Sutra 1.47)

“When निर्विचार is perfected, there follows the purity of the internal organ (mind)”

Though both सवितर्क and निर्वितर्क have gross objects as their content, the निर्वितर्क, which has the nature of being free from विकल्प, is still superior to सवितर्क, which is mixed up with विकल्प between word, meaning and ideation.

Superior to that is सविचार, which is concerned with subtle objects and in which they are revealed in assocition with विकल्प.

Superior even to that is निर्विचार, which is concerned with subtle objects and in which they are revealed unassociated with विकल्प.

Among them, the preceeding three, being meant to lead to the निर्विचार become fruitful by the fruitfulness of the निर्विचार itself.

However, when the निर्विचार समाधि becomes perfected through the power of intense practice, and the quality of सत्व unimpeded by रजस् and तमस्, becomes dominant, ‘there follows purity of the internal organ’; in that mind, which is devoid of the impressions of क्लेस (pain bearing obstructions), there arises the clear light of insight (प्रज्ञा) with regard to an object as it is in its totality, without any sequential comprehension.

On this Vyasa comments: “The sorrowless man of insight, after attaining the ‘clarity of insight’, looks upon all the sorrowful people as does a man on a mountain peak the people on the ground.”

ऋतम्भरा तत्र प्रज्ञा॥४८॥ (Yoga Sutra 1.48) “The insight gained there is called ऋतम्भरा (filled with truth).

‘There’, when the purity of the mind is gained, the insight (प्रज्ञा) that comes to the yogi whose mind is in the state of absorption is called ऋतम्भरा–that which contains truth only, in which there is not even a trace of error.

The term ऋतम्भरा is indeed a derivative term. And that निर्विचार समाधि is a high state of Yoga.

On this Vyasa states: “One attains the high state of Yoga by cultivating प्रज्ञा in three ways. Through scriptural texts (i.e. through श्रवण, अनुमान i.e. inference–मनन, and a liking for the practice of meditation known as निदिध्यासन.”

श्रुतानुमानप्रज्ञाभ्यामन्यविषया विशेषार्थत्वात्॥४९॥ (Yoga Sutra 1.49)

But that ऋतम्भरा प्रज्ञा is different from the knowledge gained through hearing (श्रुत) and inference (अनुमान), because it relates to specific characteristics of objects.

श्रुत means scriptural knowledge. That relates to objects in a general way only.

For, it is not possible to comprehend any relationship between a word and the specific characteristics of the object denoted by that word.

Similarly, inference relates to objects in a general way only; for it is not possible to understand the specific characteristics of an object through a knowledge of व्याप्ति (invariable concomitance).

For example, from the general knowledge that ‘fire exists wherever there is smoke’, one may infer that at a certain place ‘there is fire because smoke is also seen there’. But from this inference he will not know the particulars of that fire.

Therefore no specific characteristic can be an object of scriptural and inferential knowledge.

Besides, there is no direct knowledge of this subtle, hidden and remote entity through ordinary perception.

But that specific characteristic, be it of some subtle element or of the Person, does become clearly comprehended through insight gained in समाधि.

Therefore great effort has to be put in by a yogi for the ऋतम्भरा प्रज्ञा itself, insight that is filled with truth, which arises on the perfection of निर्विचार समाधि.

This निर्विचार समाधि is different from the knowledge gained from scriptural text and inference; and whose contents are all the specific characteristics, be they subtle, hidden and remote.  This is the idea.

Srimad Bhagavat Geetha – Chapter 6 – ध्यान योगा – Yoga of Meditation (part 11)

एतयैव सविचारा निर्विचारा च सूक्ष्मविषया व्याख्याता॥४४॥ (Yoga Sutra 1.44)

“By this much itself stands explained the सविचार and the निर्विचार समाधि which pertain to subtle objects.”

That समाधि which has for its object the subtle, uncompounded elements etc. is of two kinds–सविचार and निर्विचार.

These two kinds are according to the difference of their being with or without विकल्प.

विकल्प as already explained is the imaginary relationship between a word, its meaning, or object, and the corresponding ideation or mental impression.

These stand explained by this much itself, i.e. by सवितर्क and निर्वितर्क समाधि concerned with gross objects.

That is सविचार समाधि in which a subtle object becomes revealed, together with विकल्प, and as conditioned by space, time, quality, etc.

That is निर्विचार समाधि in which subtle object stands revealed merely as a substratum, and unassociated with विकल्प and as conditioned by space, time, quality, etc.

By the specification that सविचार and निर्विचार समाधि are concerned with subtle objects, it stands explained ipso facto that the सवितर्क and निर्वितर्क समाधि they are concerned with gross objects.

सूक्ष्मविषयत्वं चालिङ्गपर्यवसानम्॥४५॥ (Yoga Sutra 1.45)

“The fact of having subtle objects as their content is inclusive of आलिङ्ग”.

It should be noted that what has been said about the सविचार and निर्विचार समाधि having subtle objects as their content extends up to the आलिङ्ग.

लिङ्ग means that by which anything is indicated, or which can be resolved into its cause, or source.

आलिङ्ग means that of which there is no cause, which cannot be resolved further into any other source, and which is not indicative of anything else.

Thereby सानन्द and सास्मित समाधि also, which concern the means of perception (ग्रहण ) and the perceiver (ग्रहित्र्), become included in the ग्राह्य समाधि itself.

That is to say ग्राह्य समाधि concerning the object of perception. This is the idea.

There are seven प्रकृति or sources. They are the five monads of smell, taste, light, touch and sound and अहंकार and महत्.

So has it been said: The earth-atom has for its subtle source the smell-monad;

of the water-atom also the subtle source is the taste-monad;

of the fire-atom, the subtle source is light-monad;

of the air-atom, the subtle source is touch-monad;

of the space-atom, the subtle source is sound-monad.

For all of the above the subtle source is the principle called अहंकार or egoism;

Of this अहंकार the subtle source is mere लिङ्ग;

Of this लिङ्ग the subtle source is महत् the Cosmic Intelligence;

Of even that महत् the subtle source आलिङ्ग or प्रधान.

And the subtlety of all the seven प्रकृति, the sources, culminate in the प्रधान itself.

Therefore it has been said, ‘the fact of having subtle objects as their content’ extend up to that प्रधान alone.

Then there is the पुरुष (Person) who is more subtle than प्रधान, still, but He is not the material cause (अन्वयी-कारण).

Therefore it has been explained that the utmost subtlety belongs to प्रधान alone which is the material cause of all things.

On the other hand, although the पुरुष exists as the efficient cause, He is still not fit to be called their subtle cause, because he is not the material cause.

However, if what is under consideration be not the fact of being the material cause, i.e. if the intention be not to state that subtlety belongs only to what is the material cause, then it should be noted that even the पुरुष is indeed subtle.

ता एव सबीज: समाधिः॥४६॥ (Yoga Sutra 1.46)

“These alone are the समाधि concerned with objects.

These four समाधि are called सबीज-समाधि since they occur in association with the बीज, literally seed i.e. object of perception.”

Srimad Bhagavat Geetha – Chapter 6 – ध्यान योगा – Yoga of Meditation (part 10)

Consider the order of the following awareness.

The awareness of the means of perception is certainly preceded by the awareness of the perceiver;

the awareness of the subtle objects of perception is preceded by the awareness of the means of perception; and

the awareness of the gross objects of perception is preceded by the subtle objects of perception.

Thus both kinds of वितर्क (i.e. सवितर्क and निर्वितर्क), which are with regard to gross objects, remain associated with the four kinds of समाधि.

when a yogi is meditating on some gross object, its subtle cause, the means of perception and the perceiver do not get eliminated.

So there remains a possibility of the yogi attaining समाधि with regard to any of these three when he is practising to attain समाधि with regard to the gross.

The second viz. विचार समाधि is without वितर्क and remain associated with three viz. सविचार, सानन्द and सास्मित समाधि.

When a yogi practises समाधि with regard to subtle cause of a gross effect after rejecting the gross through समाधि  what is the effect?

Rejecting the gross makes it non-existant for him so much so there remains no possibility of समाधि on the gross object i.e सवितर्क समाधि.

The third सानन्द समाधि is devoid of वितर्क and विचार, and remains associated with two viz. सानन्द and सास्मित समाधि.

The fourth सास्मित समाधि is devoid of वितर्क, विचार and आनन्द and has अस्मिता alone.

Thus this संप्रज्ञात-समाधि  has four states.

In this way the समाधि in the state of सवितर्क, सविचार, सानन्द and सास्मित is the source of such mystical powers as disappearing from view, etc.

Such mystical powers are not conducive but are opposed to that समाधि which is the cause of Liberation.

Therefore संप्रज्ञात-समाधि should certainly be rejected by the seekers of Liberation.

So long as they are objects of thoughts even the perceiver (ग्रहित्र् ) and the means of perception (ग्रहण ) comes under the class of ‘objects of perception (ग्राह्य ).

For the sake of stating the division between what is to be rejected and what is to be accepted, the author of Sutra has elaborated only the ग्राह्य समापत्ति.

ग्राह्य समापत्ति  is the समाधि in the object of perception.

ग्राह्य समापत्ति is also of four kinds.

In this that concerning the gross objects of perceptions are two kinds–सवितर्क and निर्वितर्क; and

the ones concerning the subtle objects of perceptions are of two kinds–सविचार and निर्विचार.

शब्दार्थज्ञानविकल्पैः सङ्कीर्णा सवितर्का समापत्तिः॥४२॥ (Yoga Sutra 1.42)

Among them, that (समापत्ति, समाधि)  is mixed up with विकल्प, an imaginary relationship, between a word, its meaning and the corresponding mental impression.

This समाधि mixed up with विकल्प and it takes the form of an awareness of the gross object known as सवितर्क समाधि.

It concerns gross objects and is a mental modification involving विकल्प (imaginary relationship, false notion).

स्मृतिपरिशुद्धौ स्वरूपशून्येवार्थमात्रनिर्भासा निर्वितर्का॥४३॥ (Yoga Sutra 1.43)

When memory becomes purified, and the mind seems to be devoid of its own nature and appears only as an object then the state is called निर्वितर्क समाधि.

The purification of the mind in this समाधि  takes the following form.

The real nature of the object of perception becomes manifest after the elimination of the memory of the word and its meaning.

Then the corresponding ideation of the object becomes subordinate and as though itself nonexistent.  This is निर्वितर्क समाधि.

That is to say, it has for its content the gross object and mental modification without विकल्प.

Srimad Bhagavat Geetha – Chapter 6 – ध्यान योगा – Yoga of Meditation (part 9)

वितर्कविचारानन्दास्मितारूपानुगमात्सम्प्रज्ञातः॥१७॥ (Yoga Sutra 1.17)

 As stated before संप्रज्ञात-समाधि is a kind of meditation (भावना) through which the nature of objects of meditation is known clearly.

 समाधि is reached with the help of वितर्क, विचार, आनन्द and अस्मिता and these are explained now.

 It has already been pointed out that the objects are of two kinds, gross and subtle. They are part of प्रकृति, nature.

When meditation is undertaken on gross objects viz. the sixteen transformation of प्रकृति, nature consisting of 5 महाभूत (space, air, fire, water and earth) and eleven organs consisting of 5 ज्ञानेन्द्रिय and 5 कर्मेन्द्रिय plus the mind, along with the order of their succession and remembrance of their indicative words and their meaning, then come सवितर्क-समाधि .

In explaining this what is known as समाधि here means “accompanied with reason or thought”.

So when you concentrate and meditate on the gross objects, on their nature and in relation to time and space, it is वितर्क समाधि.

वितर्क समाधि  is समाधि with argumentation. It is Sthula Dhyana.

Let’s take the ‘cat’ as a word, the ‘cat’ as an object and the ‘cat’ as an idea, though different from one another, are cognised as indistinct.

You begin to analyse the word ‘cat’. The characteristics of the word are different; the characteristics of the idea are different; and the characteristics of the object are also different.

Everything has a name which has some meaning.

When the mind apprehends a word and meditates on its meaning and form as well as on the understanding of both, and thus lose itself in the thing completely, it is called सवितर्क समाधि .

That is when the mind coaleses with the object knowledge dawns resulting in perception or cognition of the object.

The mixture of these three, sound of the word, its meaning and its knowledge of what it is, constitute perception or cognition of an object.

It is सवितर्क समाधि .

When meditation proceeds with regard to these themselves, without considering the order of their succession (of word, meaning and knowledge) and without remembering their indicative words and their meaning, then comes निर्वितर्क समाधि.

Both these are referred as वितर्क  in the above Sutra of Patanjali.

When meditation proceeds with regard to subtle objects, consisting of the subtle elements as also the mind, as conditioned by time, space and quality, then it is सविचार समाधि.

सविचार समाधि is a meditation on the subtle Tanmatras (5 महाभूत of space, air, fire, water and earth), on their nature and in relation to time and space. This is Sukshma Dhyana. सविचार समाधि is Sukshma Dhyana.

When the meditation proceeds with regard to these very objects as unconditioned by time, space and quality, and they are revealed only as objects, then it is निर्विचार समाधि.

Both are meant by the word विचार.

Vyaasa comments on this saying: “वितर्क is the mental realization of the true nature of objects; when this is with regard to subtle objects, it is विचार.

This is called ग्राह्य समापत्ति (objective samaadhi).

When the mind which we refer to as internal organ, which is a product of सत्त्व गुण with a trace of रजस् and तमस् , is meditated upon then since the power of consciousness takes secondary position and the सत्त्व गुण, which is the object of meditation and is full of joy and light, becomes predominant, there comes सानन्द समाधि.

Those whose endeavour remains confined to this very सानन्द समाधि and who do not see any other reality in the form of प्रधान  (प्रकृति, nature) or पुरुष (Person), they are referred to by the word विदेह, because they are devoid of self-identification with the body.

This is ग्रहण समापत्ति (समाधि with regard to the means of perception).

After that, when meditation proceeds by taking as the object of meditation the सत्त्व गुण that is pure and is not overcome by any traces of रजस् and तमस् , then since as a resut of the सत्त्व गुण, the object of meditation, becoming secondary and the power of consciousness becoming dominant there remain one’s existence alone as a residue, it is called सास्मित समाधि.

And it should not be apprehended that अहंकार (egoism, awareness of one’s individuality) and अस्मिता are non-different; because अहंकार occurs where the internal organ, the mind, perceives objects along with the awareness of “I”, but that is अस्मिता which occurs when the idea of one’s mere existence flashes in the mind that has become merged in प्रकृति as a result of a reverse transformation through an inward movement.

Those who remain satisfied in this very सास्मित समाधि, they, being unable to realize the supreme Purusha, are said to be in प्रकृति लय (merged in प्रकृति) because their minds remain merged in प्रकृति.

This is known as ग्राहित्र् समापत्ति (समाधि in the perceiver), for it is concerned with the perceiver in the form of an awareness of mere self-existence (अस्मिता).

विवेकख्यातिरविप्लवा हानोपायः॥२६॥ (Yoga Sutra 2.26)

But in the case of those who engage in meditation after distinguishing the supreme Person (Purusha) (from Prakrti), although even their discriminative knowledge (विवेक क्याति) of the Purusha alone is a ग्राहित्र् समापत्ति (समाधि in the perceiver), yet it is not सास्मित-समाधि; because in it the अस्मिता (awareness of self-existence) is discarded through discrimination.

Explanation to Srimad Bhagavat Geetha – Chapter 6 – ध्यान योगा – Yoga of Meditation (part 8)

Dear all,

The idea of meditation has to be clearly understood. For that there must be an object to meditate for sure, then of course you and the medium or mode of meditation.
When you meditate on an object, you have to fully focus on it, which means all other objects have to be excluded from your purview.
The mode of meditation is of course the mind which should fully flow to the object that it sinks into the object that it takes the form of the object itself.
In this process there is an identity between you and the object is established.
This is known as संप्रज्ञात-समाधि.
If you recall my tweets on Sri Chakra, there is a god, we use the word deva, occupying each object. The object is that god’s स्थान.
The deva or devi as the occupier of the object is called a स्थानि.
Everywhere we see, we see gods, the devas and devis galore!
That is why we say god is everywhere not just in heaven or as athiest might claim nowhere.
Now back to the meditation, when you meditate, it is a bhaavana of actual devotion.
All gods grow in strength by the number of meditators devoted to them because this kind of meditation brings about the identity of the meditator and the deva of the object of meditation.
This in turn suggest that no god is willing to part with a devotee and protect him with all his might.
In this sloka of Bhagavat Geetha 6.15 Sri Krishna asks you to meditate on Him as your own Self.
In the commentary I drew attention to Vasishtha’s narration of Uddaalaka who was getting coaxed by the devas to whom he was devoted.
But Uddaalaka broke the bondage by going away from संप्रज्ञात-समाधि to निर्विकल्प-समाधि where the object is your own Self.
With this explanation pl. read my last tweets that is blogged here:

Srimad Bhagavat Geetha – Chapter 6 – ध्यान योगा – Yoga of Meditation (part 8)

युञ्जन्नेवं सदात्मानं योगी नियतमानसः ।
शान्तिं निर्वाणपरमां मत्संस्थामधिगच्छति ॥ १५ ॥ (6.15)

Concentrating the mind thus always, the yogi, whose mind is fully controlled, achieves the Peace that culminates in Liberation and the steadfastness in My true nature.

Let us see How this idea is supported in Patanjali’s Yoga Sutra while continuing with the explanation of the words of Geetha.

अभ्यासवैराग्याभ्यां तन्निरोधः॥१२॥ (Yoga Sutra 1.12)

युज्ञ्जान, cocentrating, making absorbed in समाधि through practice (अभ्यास) and detachment (वैराग्य); आत्मानं, the mind; एवं, thus, by means of aforesaid rules of staying in a solitary place, etc.; सदा, always; योगी, the yogi, the one engrossed in Yoga; नियत-मानसः, whose mind is controlled, fully restrained, as a result of intense practice, or the one whose distractions in the form of thoughts are under control;

व्युत्थाननिरोधसंस्कारयोरभिभवप्रादुर्भावौ निरोधक्षणचित्तान्वयो निरोधपरिणामः॥९॥ (Yoga Sutra 3.9); तस्य प्रशान्तवाहिता संस्कारात्॥१०॥ (Yoga Sutra 3.10)

becoming thus,अधिगच्छति, achieves; शान्तिं, Peace that is in the form of cessation of all thoughts, and the flow of which is steady; and निर्वाण-परमां, culminates in Liberation, which is of the nature of cessation of nescience together with its effects, as a result of the rise of direct experience of Reality, and मत्-समस्थाम्, steadfastness in the supreme Bliss which is My true nature.

तदेवार्थमात्रनिर्भासं स्वरूपशून्यमिव समाधिः॥३॥ (Yoga Sutra 3.3) (Those who are interested further must study Yoga Sutra 3.16 to 3.56)

But it is not that he attains the mundane yogic powers which are the fruits of समाधि (intense concentration) on objects other than the Self; for they are hinderances to the समाधि that is necessary for Liberaion.

And accordingly, after stating the results of the respective समाधि (intense concentration), the venerable Patanjali says: “These are obstacles to समाधि (Self-absorbtion), but they are powers in the worldly state.” and “The Yogi should not feel allured or flattered by the overtures of the स्थानि (celestial beings, gods) for fear of evil again.”

So Vasishtha narrates that Uddaalaka, even though coaxed by gods, did not feel allured thereby, nor did he feel flattered, and ignoring the gods, practiced निर्विकल्प-समाधि alone for warding off recrudescence of evil.

The kind of समाधि that has to be rejected by one seeking Liberation has been stated by Patanjali:

वितर्कविचारानन्दास्मितारूपानुगमात्सम्प्रज्ञातः॥१७॥ Yoga Sutra 1.17) “When समाधि is reached with the help of वितर्क, विचार, आनन्द and अस्मिता it is called संप्रज्ञात-समाधि.

संप्रज्ञात-समाधि is a kind of meditation (भावना) through which the nature of objects of meditation is known clearly, specifically (प्र-ज्ञायते), in its totality (सम्यक्) as devoid of doubt, misapprehension and uncertainty.

Meditation (भावना), verily, is fixing repeately in the mind the objects thought of, to the exclusion of other objects.

And the object of meditation is of three kinds according to its difference as ‘an object of perception, ग्राह्य’, the means of perception, ग्रहण or the perceiver, ग्रहीत्र्’.

The object of meditation too is of two kinds, according to its difference as gross or subtle.

क्षीणवृत्तेरभिजातस्येव मणेर्ग्रहीतृग्रहणग्राह्येषु तत्स्थतदञ्जनता समापत्तिः॥४१॥ (Yoga Sutra 1.41)

So Patanjali says: “When the thoughts are weakened, mind acquires fixity in and identity with the perceiver, the means of perception or the object of perception as does a transparent crystal. This is called समापत्ति (absorption)”.

Of the mind in which the thoughts born of rajas and tamas have become weakened, there comes about ‘fixity in’ and ‘identity with’ those very perceiver, the means of perception and the perceived, (i.e.) the self, the organ of perception and the object (of perception).

That is to say, in the mind that has become subdued in which rajas and tamas have been completely suppressed, there follows prominence of the object of thought alone; there occurs that kind of absorption (समापत्ति), a transformation similar to that object of thought.

Just as a transparent crystal acquires various forms owing to its proximity with respective things, similarly a pure mind takes on the respective forms of the various objects of thoughts as a result of being colored by them.

This is called समापत्ति or समाधि, and these two terms are synonymous.

Though the Sutra says: “…with the perceiver, the means of perception or the object of perception”, still, it should be understood in a different order according to the succession of the level of समाधि.

So it has to be understood as “…with the objects of perception, the means of perception or the perceiver”, because in the beginning comes समाधि in the form of absorption in the object of perception itself, then follows absorption in the means of perception, thereafter the absorption in the perceiver.

The succession of the perceiver etc. will also be explained later on.

Srimad Bhagavat Geetha – Chapter 6 – ध्यान योगा – Yoga of Meditation (part 7)

समं कायशिरोग्रीवं धारयन्नचलं स्थिरः ।
संप्रेक्ष्य नासिकाग्रं स्वं दिशश्चानवलोकयन् ॥ १३ ॥ (6.13)

प्रशान्तात्मा विगतभीर्ब्रह्मचारिव्रते स्थितः ।
मनः संयम्य मच्चित्तो युक्त आसीत मत्परः ॥ १४ ॥ (6.14)

(13) Holding the body, head and neck erect and still, being steady, looking at the tip of his own nose–and not looking in various directions–,

(14) –with a placid mind, free from fear, firm in the vow of a celibate, and with the mind fixed on Me after controlling it, and having Me as the supreme Goal, he should remain seated, absorbed in संप्रज्ञात-समाधि.

काय is the middle part of the body. (The Tamil word காயம் came from Sanskrit काय – as in காயமே இது பொய்யடா!).

That and the head and the neck constitute काय-शिरो-ग्रीव. धारयन्, holding; समं, erect, unbent; and अचलम्, still.

दुःखदौर्मनस्याङ्गमेजयत्वश्वासप्रश्वासा विक्षेपसहभुवः॥३१॥
तत्प्रतिषेधार्थमेकतत्त्वाभ्यासः॥३२॥ (Patanjali Yoga Sutra 1.32-32)

the body from the lowest end of the spinal column to the crown of the head–by eliminating through the practice of concentration on one object the tremors in the body that accompany distractions of the mind; being स्तिरः, steady in effort; and further, संप्रेक्ष्य, looking; only स्वं नासिकाग्रं, at the tip of his own nose–i.e. remaining with the eyes not fully closed, and without any inclination towards objects–, for avoiding लय (mental inactivity) and विक्षेप (distraction);  च, and; अनवलोकयन्, not looking; दिशः, in various directions now and then; for that is an obstacles to Yoga;–becoming thus, आसीत, he should remain seated.  This is how it is to be connected with the later portion (of the body).

Let me quote Shankara Bhaashyam here:

प्रशान्तात्मा प्रकर्षेण शान्तः आत्मा अन्तःकरणं यस्य सोऽयं प्रशान्तात्मा, विगतभीः विगतभयः, ब्रह्मचारिव्रते स्थितः ब्रह्मचारिणो व्रतं ब्रह्मचर्यं गुरुशुश्रूषाभिक्षान्नभुक्त्यादि तस्मिन् स्थितः, तदनुष्ठाता भवेदित्यर्थः । किञ्च, मनः संयम्य मनसः वृत्तीः उपसंहृत्य इत्येतत्, मच्चित्तः मयि परमेश्वरे चित्तं यस्य सोऽयं मच्चित्तः, युक्तः समाहितः सन् आसीत उपविशेत् । मत्परः अहं परो यस्य सोऽयं मत्परो भवति । कश्चित् रागी स्त्रीचित्तः, न तु स्त्रियमेव परत्वेन गृह्णाति ; किं तर्हि ? राजानं महादेवं वा । अयं तु मच्चित्तो मत्परश्च ॥

Besides, प्रशान्तात्मा, with a placid mind–one having his mind absolutely tranquil, free from such defects as attachment etc. as a result of the cessation of their primal cause–; विगतभी:, free from fear–one whose fear, doubt and right and wrong, has been dispelled as a consequence of his having renounced all actions through firmness of his scriptural convictions; remaining स्थितः, firm; ब्रह्मचारि-व्रते, in the vow of a celibate–in celibacy, service to guru, living on alms, etc; and संयम्य, after controlling; मनः, the mind–i.e. making it free of thinking of objects–; then मच्चित्त:, having the mind fixed on Me, the supreme Lord, the inmost Consciousness, conditioned or unconditioned; having a flow of thoughts with regard to me–.

How can this be so, since, one has to think about his sons etc. which are dear? Hence Bhagavan Krishna says:

मत्परः, having Me as the supreme Goal, i.e. becoming one to whom I Myself am the Supreme, the cherished human Goal, because of being supreme Bliss by nature as the Sruti says:

तदेतत्प्रेयः पुत्रात्प्रेयो वित्तात्प्रेयोऽन्यस्मात्सर्वस्मादन्तरतरं यदयमात्मा । (बृहदारण्यकोपनिषद्भाष्यम् 1.4.8)

This Self is dearer than a son, dearer than wealth, dearer than everything else, and is the innermost.

Thus having a single thought in the form of the Lord by totally obliterating all other thoughts of objects, असित, he should remain seated; युक्तः, absorbed in संप्रज्ञात-समाधि; but he should not emerge from it at will. This is the meaning.

There may be some passionate person with his mind on his wife, but he does not accept the wife herself as the highest and the adorable. What then? He accepts a boss or a king as a deity.

But this one yogi with his mind fixed on Me and having Me as the Supreme, accepts Me alone as the one to be adored by all. This is Sankara’s commentary.

Srimad Bhagavat Geetha – Chapter 6 – ध्यान योगा – Yoga of Meditation (part 6)

योगी युञ्जीत सततमात्मानं रहसि स्थितः ।

एकाकी यतचित्तात्मा निराशीरपरिग्रहः ॥ १० ॥ (6.10)

 A yogi should constantly concentrate his mind by staying in a secluded place, alone, with mind and body controlled, free from hankering and free from acquisition.

A yogi who is established in Yoga, युञ्जीत सततम्, should constantly concentrate; आत्मानं, his mind–he should get his mind absorbed in the planes of एकाग्र (onepointed) and निरोध (full restraint) by transcending the planes of क्षिप्त (scattered), मूढ (stupified), विक्षिप्त (restless); स्थितः, by staying; रहसि, in a secluded place, which is free from bad people and others who are hindrance to Yoga; एकाकी, alone, as a sanyasi who has renounced all homes and relatives; यत-चित्त-आत्मा, with mind (चित्त) and body (आत्मा) controlled (यत), free of activities that are obstacles to Yoga; by virtue of his being निरासीः, free from hankering, owing to his firmness in dispassion; and, for this very reason, अपरिग्रहः, free from acquisition, devoid of any acquisition, which is an impediment to Yoga even though it is sanctioned by the sastras.

 शुचौ देशे प्रतिष्ठाप्य स्थिरमासनमात्मनः ।

नात्युच्छ्रितं नातिनीचं चैलाजिनकुशोत्तरम् ॥ ११ ॥ (6.11)

 Having firmly established in a clean place his own seat, neither too high nor too low, made of cloth, skin and kusha grass placed successively one below the other,–

 प्रतिष्ठाप्य, having established; स्थिरम्, firmly; आत्मनः, his own; आसनं, seat; देशे, in a place;  शुचौ, which is clean, either naturally or through improvement, and which is devoid of gathering of people and is without fear, such as the banks of a river, a cave or a quiet room and which is level; न अति-उच्छ्रितं, neither too high; न अति-नीचं, nor even too low;   चैल  अजिन-कुश-उत्तरम्,  made of cloth, skin or kusha grass placed successively one below the other, चैल is soft cloth, अजिन is soft skin of tiger etc; that seat in which they are over the kusha-grass; आसन means that on which one sits; The idea is first the kusha-grass is placed upon which the soft skin and over which the cloth is laid.

As Patanjali’s Yoga Sutra 2.46 says: स्थिरसुखमासनम्॥४६॥ A seat which is firm and pleasant.

आत्मनः, ‘his own’ is used to exclude another’s seat because that too is a disturbance to Yoga on account of the uncertainty of other’s wishes!

तत्रैकाग्रं मनः कृत्वा यतचित्तेन्द्रियक्रियः ।

उपविश्यासने युञ्ज्याद्योगमात्मविशुद्धये ॥ १२ ॥ (6.12)

 –(and) sitting on that seat he should practise समाधि for the purification of the mind, making the mind one-pointed and keeping the functions of the mind and organs under control.

 उपविश्या, sitting, indeed and not lying down or standing;

 तत्र आसने, on that seat–as is said in the Brahma Sutra 4.1.7. आसीनः सम्भवात् ॥ ७ ॥ – One should adore mentally while having a sitting posture, since it is possible in that way alone; and

 यत-चित्त-इन्द्रिय-क्रियः, having the functions (क्रिया) of the mind and organs under control (यत), withdrawn; he should practice (युञ्ज्यात् ) योगं, समाधि.

 To what purpose? आत्मा-विशुद्धये, for the purification of the mind, for making it fit for direct realization of Brahman by rendering it very fine through the elimination of all distractions, as Sruti says,

एष सर्वेषु भूतेषु गूढोऽत्मा न प्रकाशते ।

दृश्यते त्वग्न्यया बुद्ध्या सूक्ष्मया सूक्ष्मदर्शिभिः ॥ १२ ॥ (Ka. 1.3.12)

But by the seers of subtle things He is seen through a pointed and fine intellect. (Kathopanishad 1.3.12)

 Having done what should one practice Yoga? In answer to this Sri Krishna says:

 कृत्वा, making; मनः, mind; एकाग्रं, one pointed–making it possessed of many modifications in the form of a current of thought with regard to a single object, through an effort leading to its becoming firmly established, as Patanjali says in Yoga Sutra 1.14:  स तु दीर्घकालनैरन्तर्यसत्कारासेवितो दृढभूमिः॥१४|| and making it endued with an abundance of सत्त्व by eliminating the three levels mentions before (the क्षिप्त etc. explained under 4.26), which three together are called व्युत्थान (explained in 4.27) wherein रजस् and तमस् preponderate–, one should practice yoga, the संप्रज्ञात-समाधि, (see 4.26), for the sake of perfecting one-pointedness.

 And that is nothing but a flow of modifications of the mind in the form of Brahman, called निदिध्यासन.

 This is explained in Muktika Upanishad: “The संप्रज्ञात-समाधि, consisting in a flow of mental modifications in the form of Brahman, and those modifications continuing without the idea of egoism comes as a result of intensity in the practice of ध्यान  (meditation).”

 Having this iself in mind Sri Krishna has repeatedly enjoined intensity in the practice of ध्यान  in, “A yogi should constantly concentrate’, “he should practice समाधि for the purification of the mind”, “having Me as the supreme Goal, he should remain seated, absorbed in संप्रज्ञात-समाधि” etc.

Srimad Bhagavat Geetha – Chapter 6 – ध्यान योगा – Yoga of Meditation (part 5)

ज्ञानविज्ञानतृप्तात्मा कूटस्थो विजितेन्द्रियः ।

युक्त इत्युच्यते योगी समलोष्टाश्मकाञ्चनः ॥ ८ ॥ (6.8)

One whose mind has become contented with knowledge and experience, who remains unperturbed, whose organs are under control, to whom a lump of earth, a stone and gold are equal is said to be yogi poised in Yoga.

ज्ञान, knowledge means the knowledge arising from instructions about the meaning of the subjects presented in the sastras.

Or as Sankara puts it: ज्ञानं शास्त्रोक्तपदार्थानां परिज्ञानम्, ‘knowledge’ means conversance with the principles enunciated in the sastras.

विज्ञान, is the realization, through one’s own direct experience, of those subjects to be really so, as a result of विचार (inquiry) which culminates in the removal of the doubt that they are invalid.

To quote Adi Sankara again: विज्ञानं तु शास्त्रतो ज्ञातानां तथैव स्वानुभवकरणम्, on the other hand, ‘experience’ means the exact realization of whatever has been learnt from the sastras.

One whose आत्मा, mind; has become त्र्प्त, contented, has attained the conviction that fulfilment has been achieved, with those two is said to be a ज्ञान-विज्ञान-तृप्त-आत्मा,  कूटस्थ: means one who remains unperturbed even in the proximity of objects; and hence he is विजितेन्द्रियः, one whose organs (इन्द्रिय) are under control (विजित), turned away from receiving objects out of attraction and aversion; and for this very reason he is सम-लोष्ट-अश्म-काञ्चनः, one to whom a lump of earth (लोष्ट), a stone (अश्म) and gold (काञ्चन) are equal (सम), on account of his being free from the ideas of acceptability and non-acceptability.

Such a one इति उच्यते, is said to be; a yogi of परमहंस class, युक्त:, poised in Yoga, imbued with परवैराग्य, one who has ascended to Yoga.

Sri Krishna says that one having the same feeling towards a selfless benefactor, a well-wisher and others is however highest among all yogis.

सुहृन्मित्रार्युदासीनमध्यस्थद्वेष्यबन्धुषु ।
साधुष्वपि च पापेषु समबुद्धिर्विशिष्यते ॥ ९ ॥ (6.9)

He excels whose intellect is equally same in respect of good men, friends, foes, indifferent persons, neutrals, antagonists, relations, the dhaarmic and the adharmic.

Now let’s turn to Sankara Bhaashya: सुहृत् इति प्रत्युपकारमनपेक्ष्य उपकर्ता, मित्रं स्नेहवान्, अरिः शत्रुः, उदासीनः न कस्यचित् पक्षं भजते, मध्यस्थः यो विरुद्धयोः उभयोः हितैषी, द्वेष्यः आत्मनः अप्रियः, बन्धुः सम्बन्धी इत्येतेषु साधुषु शास्त्रानुवर्तिषु अपि च पापेषु प्रतिषिद्धकारिषु सर्वेषु एतेषु समबुद्धिः ‘कः किंकर्मा’ इत्यव्यापृतबुद्धिरित्यर्थः । विशिष्यते, ‘विमुच्यते’ इति वा पाठान्तरम् । योगारूढानां सर्वेषाम् अयम् उत्तम इत्यर्थः ॥

“The ‘good man’ helps, regardless of any requittal. ‘The friend’ is one who is affectionate.

‘The foe’ is the adversary. ‘The indifferent’ takes no sides. ‘The neutral’ seeks the well being of both who oppose each other.

‘The antagonist’ is he whom one does not like. ‘The relations’ are both kith and kin.

In regard to all these, as also to the dhaarmic who conform to the sastras and to the adharmic who do evil, he excels whose intellectual attitude is the same, who does not bother about what another is and does.

Another reading for ‘excels’ is विमुच्यते, meaning ‘is liberated’.

The idea is that this kind of person is the foremost among all those who have scaled Yoga’s peak.”

सुहृत् is one who is a benefactor without expectation of any service in return and even without previous affection and relationship.

मित्र is one who does good out of affection. अरि is a person who, because of ingrained cruelty, does evil to one irrespective of any harm done to him. A sadist.

उदासीन is one who is indifferent to both the disputants.

मध्यस्थ is an orbiter who is a well-wisher of both the disputants.

द्वेष्य is a person who does harm to a person in return for the harm done by him.

बन्धु is one who does good on account of a relationship.

Towards these, and साधुषु, towards good people, who act according to sastra; च. and;

पापेषु अपि, towards even sinners, who violate the sastra; by the use of the च. and, is to be understood ‘towards all others as well’

समबुद्धि: one who is equally disposed, one whose mind is not concerned with who a person is or of what kind his actions are, one who is devoid of attraction and aversion under all conditions;

विशिष्यते, excels, becomes the best of all. If the reading is विमुच्यते, becomes liberated.