Chapter 5 – सन्यासयोग: – YOGA OF RENUNCIATION OR REALIZATION OF ONE’S OWN NATURE – Part 16

स्पर्शान्कृत्वा बहिर्बाह्यांश्चक्षुश्चैवान्तरे भ्रुवोः ।
प्राणापानौ समौ कृत्वा नासाभ्यन्तरचारिणौ ॥ २७ ॥

यतेन्द्रियमनोबुद्धिर्मुनिर्मोक्षपरायणः ।
विगतेच्छाभयक्रोधो यः सदा मुक्त एव सः ॥ २८ ॥

One whose organs, minds and intellect have been controlled by driving the external objects he, fixing the eyes at the juncture of the eyebrows, and making similar the PraaNa and Apaana which moves through the nostrils, should become a meditator fully intent on liberation. One who is ever free from desire, fear and anger is verily free.

बहिः कृत्वा, verily driving outside again; बाह्यान्, the external; स्पर्शान्, objects, such as sound etc., which though existing outside have, through the ear etc., entered within in the form of the respective modification of the mind, ie. by not producing those modifications of the mind in their respective forms with the power of पर-वैराग्य – supreme detachment (See Yoga Sutra 1.16 that I had explained before).

Should they be internal, then they will not be ejected outside even through a thousand means, for that would lead to violation of the intrinsic disposition of things!

When when they are external ones that have entered in owing to attachment, it is possible for them to go outside as a result of detachment.

The adjective बाह्यान्, the external, is used for expressing this.

Thus having spoken about detachment (वैराग्य ) through this much, Sri Krishna speaks now about practice (अभ्यास: ‘Fixing’–which word has to be supplied–चक्षु च एव, the eyes; अन्तरे, at the juncture; भ्रूवो: of the eyebrows.

For, should there be complete closure of the eyes, there will follow the single modification of the mind, called sleep, which is the same as लय or mental inactivity.

On the other hand, if the eyes are open there will follow the four kinds of mental modifications, viz. प्रमाण (knowledge), विपर्यय (misapprehension), विकल्प (fancy), and स्मृति (memory) (See Yoga Sutra 1.6), which are of the nature of विक्षेप (distractions).

However, since all the five modifications have to be stopped, therefore the eyes have to be fixed between the brows by keeping them half closed.

Thus also, कृत्वा, making; समौ, similar, i.e. stopping their upward and downward movements through कुम्भक; (कुम्भक is stopping the breath by shutting the mouth and closing the nostrils with the fingers of the right hand.) प्राण-अपानौ, the PraaNa and the Apaana (the outgoing and incoming breaths); नास-अभ्यन्तर-चारिणौ, which moves through the nostrils.

यत-इन्द्रिय-मनो-बुद्धि:, one whose organs, mind and intellect have become controlled through this above mentioned means and he should become मुनि:, a contemplative who is detached from all objects, ie. one who contemplates on the subject “I” not objects; मोक्षपरायणः, Fully intent on Liberation.

विगत-इच्छा-भय-क्रोध:, free from desire, fear and anger–this was explained in Chapter 2 (sloka 56 – वीत राग भय क्रोध:) .

The sanyasi य:, who; is सदा, ever of this kind; is एव, verily; मुक्त:, free; not, however, that for him Liberation is still to be attained.

Or, he who is of this kind, he is verily free सदा, at all times, even while living.

By knowing what does one who is thus endued with Yoga become free? Sri Krishna says:

भोक्तारं यज्ञतपसां सर्वलोकमहेश्वरम् ।
सुहृदं सर्वभूतानां ज्ञात्वा मां शान्तिमृच्छति ॥ २९ ॥ (5.29)

He attains peace knowing Me, the partaker of the sacrifices and penances, the supreme Lord of the whole world and the friend of all beings.

ऋच्छति, one gets, ie. attains; शान्तिम्, Peace, the cessation of the whole of mundane existence, ie. Liberation;  ज्ञात्वा, by knowing, by directly realizing as the Self; मां, Me, NaraayaNa; भोक्तारं, who, as the performer and the deity, am the enjoyer or the protector of all the sacrificial austerities; who am the the great lord (महेश्वर) of all (सर्व ) the worlds (लोक), the controller of even हिरण्यगर्भ and others, and सुहृदं, the friend of all creatures, a benefactor irrespective of any service in return, the inner Controller of all, the Illuminator of all; who am Existence-Knowledge-Bliss through and through in its fullness, Truth in the highest sense, and the Self of all.

These adjectives are for dispelling the doubt “How is it that I am not liberated even though I am seeing You?”  The idea is, “Knowing Me in the form described is the only means to Libeation.”

Thus Hari proclaims the means to Liberation as the full realization of one’s own true nature, which is acquired from the practice of many spiritual disciplines and which is the case of everyone.

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