शक्नोतीहैव यः सोढुं प्राक्छरीरविमोक्षणात् ।
कामक्रोधोद्भवं वेगं स युक्तः स सुखी नरः ॥ २३ ॥ (5.23)
One who can withstand here itself, till liberation from the body, the onrush arising from desire and anger, he is a yogi, he is happy, and he is a man.
काम which is of the nature of attachment, is the eagerness, hankering, thirst, greed, which one has with regard to things that are favorable to oneself, that are sources of happiness, when they are seen or heard of or remembered; and which comes as a result of having repeatedly contemplated on their qualities.
However, the word काम is very much in vogue to denote the desire between a man and woman have in common for sex.
Having this idea in view, लोभ, greed, as meaning greed for wealth, and काम for passion as meaning for desire for sex have been stated separately in ‘passion, anger and also greed’ (in BG 16.21).
Here, however, the word काम ia used in the sense of craving in general, and hence लोभ has not been mentioned separately.
Similarly, क्रोध, anger, which is of the nature of flaring up, is hostility, resentment, which one has with regard to the things or situations that are adverse to oneself, that are causes of pain, when they are seen, heard of or remembered; and which comes as a result of having repeatedly contemplated on their short comings.
Their intensive states, which, since they hinder the memory regarding what is opposed to custom and the Vedas, manifest themselves in the form of one’s being on the verge of acting contarily to custom and the Vedas are called वेग, onrush or impulse, because of their similarity with the rush of a stream.
Indeed as the वेग becomes very strong in the rainy season, drowns by throwing into a hollow and pushing downwards even one who is unwilling by virtue of having the memory of the customs and the Vedas, similarly the onrush of desire and anger that have become very strong–as a result of repeatedly dwelling on objects, which is comparable to the rainy season–drowns in the sea of the world, by throwing into the pit of enjoyable things and pushing downward into great hells, even one who is unwilling by virtue of one’s remembering what is opposed to the customs and the Vedas. This is indicated by the use of the word वेग.
This is all about वेगम्, onrush; काम-क्रोध-उद्भवं, which arises from desire and anger, which is in the form of agitation of the mind, which expresses itself in the form of many such external symptoms as immobility, perspiration, etc., which is unreliable because of the constant possibility of its arising from diverse causes, and which originates internally only, the self-controlled man, यः, who, through the non-attachment called वशीकर, arising from the practice of noticing defects in things; शक्नोती सोढुं, can withstand–like a तिमिङ्गिल the very large fish which can swallow a whale, withstanding the onrush of a river–, who becomes able to make it ineffective by not performing acts conducive to the onrush; इह एव, here itself, even before the functioning of he organs which is comparable to falling into pit; आ-शरीर-विमोक्षणात्, till liberation from the body; स:, he indeed; is युक्त:, a yogi; is सुखी, happy; he indeed is नरः, a man, because of his accomplishing the human Goal.
Incidentally, on the idea of वशीकर Patanjali says in his Yoga Sutra (1.15):
दृष्टानुश्रविकविषयवितृष्णस्य वशीकारसञ्ज्ञा वैराग्यम्॥१५॥
“That effect which comes to those who have given up their thirst after objects either seen or heard is called वशीकर, total detachment, physical and mental.”
But the one difference from him is indeed a beast in the form of a man, because of his remaining engrossed only in such animal behaviour as eating, sleeping, fear, sexuality etc. This is the idea.
As for आ-शरीर-विमोक्षणात् etc., the other explanation is this.
Just as a person, after his death, withstands the onrush of passion and anger–even when embraced by wailing young women and even when cremated by his sons–owing to lifelessness, similarly he who withstands them even while alive, he is a yogi.
This explanation fits in if here Sri Krishna has merely spoken of non-origination of passion and anger even while living as in death, in the way that Vasishta has said:
“Just as the body does not feel happiness and sorrow when life has departed, if one is so even when endowed with life, then one should continue in the state of sanyasa.” (नारदपरिव्राजक उपनिषद 3.27)
Here, however, the context being the withstanding of desires that have arisen, their mere non-origination cannot be the example.
This being so, there is no need for further elaboration.