We took up the simultaneous existence of attachment, aversion and delusion with regard to pain as consequence, as anticipation of loss of happiness, and as fresh craving arising from संस्कार of happiness.

This we did using Patanjali’s line of argument. Let’s continue with him some more.

अविद्या क्षेत्रमुत्तरेषां प्रसुप्ततनुविच्छिन्नोदाराणाम्॥ (2.4)

The क्लेश, afflictions, pain-bearing obstructions have four states–in the form of being प्रसुप्त, dormant, तनु, attenuated, विच्छिन्न, overpowered, and उदार, manifest.

अविद्यास्मितारागद्वेषाभिनिवेशाः पञ्च क्लेशाः॥ (2.3|)

The five क्लेश are अविद्या, ignorance, अस्मिता, egoism, राग, attachment, द्वेष, aversion and अभिनिवेश, clinging to life.

अविद्या is the productive field of all these that follow, whether they are प्रसुप्त, तनु, विच्छिन्न, or उदार.

अनित्याशुचिदुःखानात्मसु नित्यशुचिसुखात्मख्यातिरविद्या॥५॥ (2.5)

अविद्या is taking the non-eternal, the impure, the painful and the non-self for the eternal, the pure, the happy and the Aatman respectively.

दृग्दर्शनशक्त्योरेकात्मतेवास्मिता॥६॥ (2.6) अस्मिता is the identification of the seer with the instrument of seeing.

सुखानुशयी रागः॥७॥ (2.7); दुःखानुशयी द्वेषः॥८॥ (2.8) राग is that which dwells on pleasure and द्वेष is that which dwells on pain.

स्वरसवाही विदुषोऽपि तथारूढोऽभिनिवेशः॥९॥ (2.9)

Flowing through its own nature, and established even in the learned is अभिनिवेश in short clinging to life.

ते प्रतिप्रसवहेयाः सूक्ष्माः॥१०॥ (2.10) These fine संस्कार are to be conquered by resolving them into their causal state.

ध्यानहेयास्तद्वृत्तयः॥११॥ (2.11) By ध्यान, meditation, their gross modifications are to be rejected.

क्लेशमूलः कर्माशयो दृष्टादृष्टजन्मवेदनीयः॥१२॥ (2.12)

The कर्माशय, the sublimal impression of actions has its root in these क्लेश and their experience is in this visible life or in the unseen life.

सति मूले तद्विपाको जात्यायुर्भोगाः॥१३॥ (2.13)

The root being there, the fruition comes in the form of species, life, and experience of pain and pleasure.

In that context, ‘the idea of something in that which it is not’ is called विपर्यय, misapprehension, मिथ्य-ज्ञान, false knowledge, अविद्या, ignorance and these words are synonymous.

The specialty of that ignorance is that is the source of mundane existence.

As to that, the idea of eternality with regard to the non-eternal is, for instance, as in, ‘the earth is permanent’, ‘the sky, together with the moon and the stars, is eternal’, ‘the dwellers in the heaven are immortal’.

The idea of purity with regard to the extremely loathsome impure body is as in, ‘the girl is as beautiful as the new crescent moon; her limbs seem to be made of honey and nectar; she seems to have come out piercing the moon; having wide eyes like petals of a blue lotus, she seems to be cheering up the world of mortals with her two eyes full of blandishments.’ What is connected with what!

There is also a verse of Vyasa in his Bhashya on Yoga Sutra on the verse we considered viz. 2.5:

“The wise ones verily reognize the body to be impure because of the place of its origin (womb), the seed (semen), the support (i.e. the constituents, viz. bile, phlegm, air etc.), the secretions of urine, stool, etc.), death and artificial purification through bath etc.”

By this is explained the notion of holiness in what is unholy and notion of goodness in what is evil.

Instances of the notion of joy in sorrow have been cited in the course of explaining above in Sutra 2.15.

परिणामतापसंस्कारदुःखैर्गुणवृत्तिविरोधाच्च दुःखमेव सर्वं विवेकिनः॥१५॥ (2.15)

To the discriminating one all is surely painful on account of everything bringing pain either as a consequence, or anticipation of loss of happiness, or as fresh craving arising from impressions of happiness, or also because of the counteraction of the Gunas.

Will continue explaining the क्लेशा in the next session.


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