1. ब्रह्मण्याधाय कर्माणि सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा करोति यः ।
लिप्यते न स पापेन पद्मपत्रमिवाम्भसा ॥ १० ॥ (5.10)
2. Reposing all works in Brahman, he operates without attachment; he is stained by sin only as a lotus is by the water.
3. यः, one who; करोति, acts; आधाय, by dedicating; कर्माणि. actions, mundane and vedic; ब्रह्माणि, to Brahman, to the Supreme Easwra; and त्यक्त्वा, by renouncing; सङ्गं, attachment, desire for results; –acts with the attitude ‘I act for Eawara, like a servant for his master, irrespective of any result accruing to myself’, सः, he; लिप्यते, does not become polluted; पापेन, by sin, that is to say, by actions leading to virtue and vice; just as पद्मपत्रं, a lotus leaf; is not wet अम्भसा by water thrown on it.
4. Action done with the idea of dedication to Easwara results only in purification of the mind.
5. कायेन मनसा बुद्ध्या केवलैरिन्द्रियैरपि ।
योगिनः कर्म कुर्वन्ति सङ्गं त्यक्त्वात्मशुद्धये ॥ ११ ॥ (5.11)
6. The Yogi, abandoning attachement, performs work with the body, the mind, the intellect and the senses, only for self-purification.
7. त्यक्त्वा, by giving up; सङ्गं, attachement to results; योगिनः, the yogis, the men of actions; कर्म, work; कायेन, through (केवलै:, mere) body; मनसा, through mind; बुद्ध्या, through intellect; अपि इन्द्रियै:, and even through organs. The word केवलै: qualifies all the nouns beginning from body. The meaning is ‘..through body etc. which are bereft of the idea of “me” and “mine” under the idea, “I work for Easwara alone, not for any fruit for myself”; आत्मशुद्धये, for the purification of their minds.
8. Arjuna begins to have a doubt as follows:
“Although the idea of agentship is equally present, yet someone becomes liberated through that very work, whereas someone becomes bound. What is the reason for this disparity?”
Sensing this doubt Krishna proceeds to clear it.
9. युक्तः कर्मफलं त्यक्त्वा शान्तिमाप्नोति नैष्ठिकीम् ।
अयुक्तः कामकारेण फले सक्तो निबध्यते ॥ १२ ॥ (5.12)
10. Giving up the fruits of works, the yogin attains disciplined peace; the non-yogin attached to the fruits by the force of cravings is bound.
11. त्यक्त्वा, by renouncing; कर्म-फलं, the result of work; युक्तः, one who is engaged in karma-yoga, one who has the idea, “These works are for Easwara alone, not for any result for myself”; अप्नोति, attains, even while performing work; शान्तिम्, Peace, called Liberation; which is नैष्ठिकीम्, constant, i.e. generated through the succession of purification of mind, discrimination between the Eternal and the non-eternal objects, renunciation, and steadfastness in Knowledge.
12. But he, again, who is अयुक्तः, not engaged in karma-yoga, who is devoid of the idea, “These works are for Easwara alone, not for any result for myself”; सक्त:, being attached; फले, to the results–thus, “I do this work verily for my own benefit”; कामकारेण, under the impulsion of desire; निबध्यते, becomes completely bound, comes wholly under the bondage of the world through actions. Since this is so, therefore you too perform actions by becoming engaged in Karma-yoga–this much is to be understood.
13. After having expounded what was said before, that for one of impure mind Karma-yoga is better than unprepared renunciation, Krishna now says that, for one of pure mind renunciation of all actions is preferable:
14. सर्वकर्माणि मनसा संन्यस्यास्ते सुखं वशी ।
नवद्वारे पुरे देही नैव कुर्वन्न कारयन् ॥ १३ ॥ (5.13)
15. The embodied man of self-control, having given up all actions mentally, remains happily in the body of nine gates without doing or causing others to do anything at all.
16. Through the perfect realization of the Self, which is not an agent–as stated in the verse (BG 4.18) “He who finds action in inaction”, देही, the embodied man, one who sees the Self as different from the body; संन्यस्यास, having given up; सर्व, all; कर्माणि, actions, viz. नित्य, नैमित्तिक, प्रतिसिद्ध कर्म; मनसा, mentally; आस्ते, surely remains, owing to the प्रारब्ध कर्म; –is it sorrowfully? He says, no–सुखं, happily, at ease–because of the actions of the body, speech and mind, which are causes of trouble. Why do his body, speech and mind not act just as they will? To that Krishna says: वशी, a man of self-control, one who has the aggregate of his body and mind under his own control. Where does he remain? नवद्वारे पुरे, in the body with nine gates. Seven of them are in the head–two ears, two eyes, two nostrils and a mouth. The two called the organ of excretion and organ of generation is below. In the body having these nine gates, he remains, like a stranger in another’s house, without being elated or dejected by his landlord’s adoration, humiliation, etc. and without egoism and self-interest.
17. Indeed, an unelightened person is the body itself owing to his self-identification with the body, but he is not a dweller-in-the-body. (देहात्मभावे ज्ञजडौ समाना – Bhagavan Ramana. See Ganapati Muni’s सद्दर्शनम्). And he, considering the support of the body as his own support, thinks, “I am in the house or on the ground or on a seat etc.” but he does not think, “I am in the body”, because he does not see any difference between the self and the body.
18. But one who has renounced all actions and has realized the Self as different from the aggregate of the body, organs, etc, understands, I am i the body, owing to his perception of the difference. Therefore the sublation, through Knowledge, of the actions of the body etc. superimposed on the action-less Self through ignorance is itself what is called renunciation of all actions. On account of this difference from the unenlightened person, the specification, ‘remains in the body of nine gates’, is justified.
19. It is not that, though through enlightenment the activities of the body etc. superimposed on the Self through ignorance are sublated through Knowledge –just as the movements of the boat superimposed on the tree on the bank are removed by knowledge, still, there will be agentship in the Self owing to its own activities, and It will be an ‘impeller of activity’ in relation to the activities of the body etc.? The Lord says, no.
20. The construction of the sentence is ‘He remains..न कुर्वन् , without doing, or न कारयन्, causing others to do एव, anything at all.
21. My Guru Bhagavan Ramana taught exactly the same thing as follows:
22. देहात्मभावे ज्ञजडौ समाना-वेकस्य देहे हृदि दीप्त आत्मा।
आक्रम्य देहं च जगच्च पूर्णः परस्य मेयं तनुमात्रमात्मा ||
23. In their body-centric attitudes, a jnaani as well as an ajnaani are the same. A jnaani traces out the Aatman (Self) which reveals itself, at the seat of consciousness within himself; he thus goes beyond his so called body consciousness, beyond the world, beyond the universe and becomes all-pervading whereas, the Ajnani, the ignorant, takes his limited psycho-physical entity to be the Self.”