संन्यासस्तु महाबाहो दुःखमाप्तुमयोगतः ।
योगयुक्तो मुनिर्ब्रह्म नचिरेणाधिगच्छति ॥ ६ ॥ (5.6)
But O mighty armed! Renunciation without Karma Yoga is only for getting into misery. 1/2
A person having become a meditator attains Brahman without delay. 2/2
तु, but; संन्यास:, renunciation; which is resorted to suddenly, अयोगतः, without yoga, without having performed scriptural duty which purifies the mind; is only आप्तुम्, for getting; दुःखम्, misery; because steadfastness in Knowledge, which is the result of that renunciation, is impossible on account of having an impure mind, and because, on account of the absence, (on the ground of having espoused monasticism), of eligibility for actions which are the cause of purification of the mind, there arises the greatest danger of being deprived of both actions and Brahman.
But, योगयुक्ता:, one who is engaged in karma-yoga; having become मुनि:, meditator, a man of renunciation having given to meditation, by virtue of having a pure mind; अधिगच्छति, attains, realizes; ब्रह्म , Brahman, the Self, characterized as Truth, Consciousness etc; नचिरेण, without delay, quickly indeed, on account of the absense of obstacles. And this has been already stated before in (BG 3.4): “Man does not achieve freedom from works by abstention from them. None attains perfection through mere renunciation of works.”
Hence, though the result of both is the same, still, what was stated before in (BG 5.2) “Karma Yoga, however, excels over renunciation of actions.”, was proper.
योगयुक्तो विशुद्धात्मा विजितात्मा जितेन्द्रियः ।
सर्वभूतात्मभूतात्मा कुर्वन्नपि न लिप्यते ॥ ७ ॥ (5.7)
With the mind purified by karma yoga, and the self disciplined, and the senses subdued, one who relized one’s self as the Self in all beings, though acting is not affected.
Scriptural actions associated with such qualities as dediction to Easwara, absence of hankering for results etc. is called yoga.
योगयुक्ता:, one associated with yoga, a person endued with that yoga first become विशुद्धात्मा, pure in mind.
One is said to be so whose आत्मा, सत्त्व in the form of the mind, is not polluted by रजस् and तमस् .
Having become pure in mind he becomes विजितात्मा controlled in body; he has the body under his own control.
Then he becomes जितेन्द्रियः, a conqueror of the organs,one who has under his control all of the external organs.
Manu says: “Speech is a staff (दण्ड), the mind is a दण्ड and the body is also a दण्ड. He who has these three दण्ड under control is called त्रिदण्डी.
Literally त्रिदण्डी are a class of sanyasis who carry three staves tied together.
‘Speech’ is used synecdochically for the outer organs.
To a person of this kind, Sri Krishna says, Knowledge of Reality comes definitely.
सर्व-भूत-आत्म-भूत-आत्मा, one whose आत्मा, real nature, consists in being all things, सर्व-भूत, and in being the Self आत्म-भूत.
The idea is, he sees everything sentient and insentient as nothing but the Self.
If the explanation of this portion be, ‘one whose आत्मा, Self, has become भूत the selves (आत्मा) of all beings (सर्व-भूत) then since the meaning is got from the phrase सर्व-भूत-आत्मा, one who is the Self of all, therefore the phrase आत्म-भूत has become the Self, will become redundant.
But there is consistency when the word सर्व is taken in the sense of the insentient, and आत्मा is taken in the sense of sentient.
A man of this kind, who has realized the highest truth, न लिप्यते, does not become tainted, by those actions;
कुर्वन् अपि, even while performing actions, as seen by others. For they are absent from his own point of view. This is the meaning.
The idea is continued in the following two verses.
नैव किञ्चित्करोमीति युक्तो मन्येत तत्त्ववित् ।
पश्यञ्शृण्वन्स्पृशञ्जिघ्रन्नश्नन्गच्छन्स्वपञ्श्वसन् ॥ ८ ॥ (5.8)
प्रलपन् विसृजन्गृह्णन्नुन्मिषन्निमिषन्नपि ।
इन्द्रियाणीन्द्रियार्थेषु वर्तन्त इति धारयन् ॥ ९ ॥ (5.9)
Let the integrated sage who knows the truth think “I dont work at all” even when he sees, hears, touches, smells, eats, walks, sleeps, breathes, talks, evacuates, grasps, opens and closes the eyes, knowing that the senses operate vis-a-vis their objects.
While the respective actions are being performed by the sense-organs–eyes etc., the motor organs–speech etc., the different forms of vital force–praaNa etc., the fourfold internal organs (मनस् mind, बुद्दि intellect, चित्त memory and अहंकार the ego), युक्त:, one whose mind is absorbed in the Self; तत्त्ववित्, who is a Knower of the Reality, a seer of the supreme Truth; मन्येत, thinks; इति, thus; न एव करोमि, I certainly do not do; किन्च्छित्, anything; दारयन्, knowing, for certain; इति, that; इन्द्रियाणि, the organs etc. themselves; वर्तन्ते, function; इन्द्रियार्थेषु, in relation to the objects of the organs, in relation to their own respective objects.
Or the contstruction of the sentence is: First becoming युक्त:, engaged in karma-yoga; then, later on, becoming तत्त्ववित्, a knower of Reality, through purification of the mind; मन्यते, he thinks; ‘न एव करोमि, I certainly do not do; किन्च्छित्, anything.’
By saying पश्यन्, श्रण्वन्, स्पर्शन्, जिघ्रन्, अस्नन् , are mentioned seeing, hearing, touhing, smelling and eating, which are the funtions of the five organs–eyes, ears, skin, nose, and tongue. Movement is of the two feet; प्रलाप, speaking, is of the organ of speech; ejection is of the organs of excretion and generation; grasping is of the two hands. These are the five functions of the motor-organs referred to by saying, ‘गच्चन्, प्रलपन्, विस्र्जन् , ग्र्ह्णन् ‘. श्वसन्, breathing is indicative of the group of five, praaNa etc. उन्मिशन्, opening, and निमिशन्, closing of the eyes are indicative of the functions of the group of five vital forces viz. नाग, कूर्म etc. स्वपन्, sleeping, is indicative of the fourfold internal organs.
The idea here is: he sees only the non-agentship of the Self in all activities, therefore he is not tainted.