Chapter 5 – सन्यासयोग: – YOGA OF RENUNCIATION OR REALIZATION OF ONE’S OWN NATURE – Part 3

अर्जुन उवाच —
संन्यासं कर्मणां कृष्ण पुनर्योगं च शंससि ।
यच्छ्रेय एतयोरेकं तन्मे ब्रूहि सुनिश्चितम् ॥ १ ॥ (5.1)

Renunciaion of action, O Krishna, you commend, and again its performance. Of the two, which one is better? Tell me that conclusively.

Of संन्यासं, renunciation; कर्मणां of actions, of नित्य and नैमित्तिक कर्म enjoined by the Sruti (one should perform अग्निहोत्र sacrifice so long as one is alive) etc., for the unenlightened person who is a seeker of Knowledge; च and; पुनः again; शंससि You praise; योगं, yoga in the form of performance of actions, which is opposed to that.

As to that since action and its renunciation have been enjoined for an unenlightened person himself, and since two cannot be practiced together, therefore ब्रूहि tell; मे, me; सुनिश्चितम् for certain; तत् एकं, that one; एतयो:, between these two, between action and its renunciation; यत्, which in Your opinion; you consider श्रेय: better, more commendable, for me to undertake–action or its renunciation.

श्रीभगवानुवाच —
संन्यासः कर्मयोगश्च निःश्रेयसकरावुभौ ।
तयोस्तु कर्मसंन्यासात्कर्मयोगो विशिष्यते ॥ २ ॥ (5.2)

Both renunciation of action and Karma-Yoga lead to liberation. Between the two, Karma Yoga, however, excels over renunciation of actions.

निःश्रेयसकरौ are useful for Liberation, on account of being the cause of generation of Knowledge. तयो: between the two; कर्मयोग: Karma Yoga; तु however; by virtue of making one acquire the fitness(for renunciation of actions), विशिष्यते, excels over, is better than; कर्मसंन्यासात्, renunciation of actions, resorted to by someone ineligible for it.

ज्ञेयः स नित्यसंन्यासी यो न द्वेष्टि न काङ्क्षति ।
निर्द्वन्द्वो हि महाबाहो सुखं बन्धात्प्रमुच्यते ॥ ३ (5.3)

Know him to be a perpetual renouncer who neither shuns nor seeks. O mighty armed! One who is above such contraries is easily liberated from bondage.

स: he, though engaged in actions; ज्ञेयः should be known as a man of constant नित्य सन्यास. Who is it? य: who; out of apprehension of fruitlessness, न द्वेष्टि does not dislike–the actions being done as a dedication to Easwara; न काङ्क्षति, does not crave–for heaven etc, हि, for; O mighty armed one, निर्द्वन्द्व:, he who is free from duality, who is devoid of attachment, aversion etc;सुखं, easily; प्रमुच्यते becomes fully freed (मुच्यते becomes free, प्र fully) owing to the excellence of discrimination between the eternal Entity and the evanecent, etc.; बन्धात्, from bondage, in the form of impurity of mind, which is an obstacle to Knowledge.

साङ्‍ख्ययोगौ पृथग्बालाः प्रवदन्ति न पण्डिताः ।
एकमप्यास्थितः सम्यगुभयोर्विन्दते फलम् ॥ ४ ॥ (5.4)

The fools, not the learned ones, speak of Sankhya and Karma Yoga as different.  Anyone who has properly resorted to even one of them gets the result of both.

While telling Arjuna what he said in the last stanza Krishna clearly apprehended the thought process of Arjuna as follows:

“Well, how can one who is engaged in actions be known as a man of renunciation, because actions and its renunciation are naturally opposed? If it be argued that this can be so on account of the unity of their result, then it is not so, because it is proper that when two things are naturally opposed, their result also should be opposite. Thus it is unproved that ‘both lead to liberation’.”

So Krishna clarifies on this as above.

संख्या means perfect knowledge of the Self; साङ्ख्य means sanyaasa, renunciation, which, as the essential discipline, leads to realization of that knowledge. Yoga means the Karma Yoga.

बाला: , the fools, those devoid of the knowledge of the meaning of the scriptures gained through discrimination; न पण्डिताः, not the learned ones; प्रवदन्ति, speak of them; as प्रथक्, different, as having opposite result. What then is the opinion of the learned ones? The answer is, आस्थित: सम्यक्, anyone who, in keeping with his competence, has resorted to, has performed, properly (सम्यक्), according to the scriptures; एकं अपि, even one, between renunciation and actions; विन्दते, gets, through generation of Knowledge; फलम्, the result; उभयो: of both, i.e. the single result viz. Liberation.

यत्साङ्‍ख्यैः प्राप्यते स्थानं तद्योगैरपि गम्यते ।
एकं साङ्‍ख्यं च योगं च यः पश्यति स पश्यति ॥ ५ ॥ (5.5)

The status won by the Samkhyas is attained by the Yogins also. Only he perceive who perceives that Samkhya and Yoga are one.

यत्, that, that well-known; स्थानं, State, which is called Liberation–in accordance with the derivation, ‘that in which one verily remains established but never deviates from’; which, as a result of steadfastness in Knowledge preceded by sravana etc., प्राप्यते, is reached–attained; सांख्यै:, by the Saankhyaas, by the monks steadfast in Knowledge, who though they are at present devoid of the performance of mundane duties, have their minds purified by the actions of previous lives; तत्, that, that State; गम्यते, is reached; अपि, even; योगै:, by the yogis.

Yoga means the actions, the scriptural rites and duties, undertaken as dedication to Easwara without hankering for results. Those who have this are yogas.

Therefore, the result being the same, सः, he alone, not anyone else; पश्यति, sees; साङ्‍ख्यं, monasticism; and योगं, yoga; as एकं, one. The idea is this: Those in whom is seen steadfastness in Knowledge preceded by monasticism, in their case it can be inferred, on that very ground, that in their previous lives they had steadfastness in rites and duties performed a dedication to Easwara. For it is not possible that an effect can be produced without its cause. So it has been said: “What good deeds should be done in the present life by a person must have been done by him in the lives other than this. Otherwise there would not been absorption in Brahman now.”

Yoga means the actions, the scriptural rites and duties, undertaken as dedication to Easwara without hankering for results. Those who have this are yogas.

Therefore, the result being the same, सः, he alone, not anyone else; पश्यति, sees; Vसाङ्‍ख्यं, monasticism; and योगं, yoga; as एकं, one. The idea is this: Those in whom is seen steadfastness in Knowledge preceded by monasticism, in their case it can be inferred, on that very ground, that in their previous lives they had steadfastness in rites and duties performed a dedication to Easwara. For it is not possible that an effect can be produced without its cause. So it has been said: “What good deeds should be done in the present life by a person must have been done by him in the lives other than this. Otherwise there would not been absorption in Brahman now.”

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