5.1.1. कर्म the work and यज्ञ the sacrifice are two sides of the same coin. This is brought out by Sri Krishna in Chpater 4.
5.1.2. The earliest creation which is a karma came out of the sacrifice called Brahmahoot and पुरुष सुक्तम् describes as follows:
5.1.3. तस्माद्विराळजायत विराजो अधि पूरुषः । स जातो अत्यरिच्यत पश्चाद्भूमिमथो पुरः ॥
5.1.4. From Him the Purusha was born the Virat while the Shining Purusha remained as the background or substratum of Virat; 1/2
5.1.5. He, the Virat created the Earth, by manifesting Her from His own being as substratum. 2/2
5.1.6. यत्पुरुषेण हविषा देवा यज्ञमतन्वत । वसन्तो अस्यासीदाज्यं ग्रीष्म इध्मः शरद्धविः ॥
5.1.7. With the Purusha as the Sacrificial Fire, this Deva the Shining One, now known as Virat continued the यज्ञ of creation; 1/2
5.1.8. Spring was created as the clarified Butter of that यज्ञ, Summer as the Fuel, and Autumn was the Havis offering. 2/2
5.1.9. तं यज्ञं बर्हिषि प्रौक्षन्पुरुषं जातमग्रतः । तेन देवा अयजन्त साध्या ऋषयश्च ये ॥
5.1.10. The First Divine Men (gods) were created as the Holy Water sprinkled with the Kusa Grass in that यज्ञ. 1/2
5.1.11. The First Divine Men were the Sadhya Devas – Brahma, Vishnu & Rudhra – then the (sapta) Rishis, were created by Virat who performed the यज्ञ. 2/2
5.1.12. तस्माद्यज्ञात्सर्वहुतः सम्भृतं पृषदाज्यम् । पशून्ताँश्चक्रे वायव्यानारण्यान् ग्राम्याश्च ये ॥
5.1.13. From the Complete Offering of Virat called यज्ञात्सर्वहुतः was obtained the animals – both of air (birds) and of forests (wild animals) and villages (domestic animals).
5.1.14. तस्माद्यज्ञात्सर्वहुत ऋचः सामानि जज्ञिरे । छन्दांसि जज्ञिरे तस्माद्यजुस्तस्मादजायत ॥
5.1.15. From the Sacrifice was born the Rig Veda and Sama Veda, the Chandas were born from Him, and the Yajur Veda was born from Him.
5.1.16. तस्मादश्वा अजायन्त ये के चोभयादतः । गावोः ह जज्ञिरे तस्मात् तस्माज्जाता अजावयः ॥
5.1.17. From Virat was born the horses and all those animals who have teeth in both jaws, from Him was born the cows, and all types of Goats.
5.1.18. यत्पुरुषं व्यदधुः कतिधा व्यकल्पयन् । मुखं किमस्य कौ बाहू का ऊरू पादा उच्येते ॥
5.1.19. What did the Purusha hold within Him? How many parts were assigned in His Huge Form? What was His Mouth? 1/2
5.1.20. What was His Arms? What was His Thighs? And what was His Feet? 2/2
5.1.21. ब्राह्मणोऽस्य मुखमासीद् बाहू राजन्यः कृतः । ऊरू तदस्य यद्वैश्यः पद्भ्यां शूद्रो अजायत ॥
5.1.22. Brahmanas were His Mouth, the Kshatriyas became His Arms, the Vaishyas were His thighs, and from His pair of feet were born the Shudras.
5.1.23. चन्द्रमा मनसो जातश्चक्षोः सूर्यो अजायत । मुखादिन्द्रश्चाग्निश्च प्राणाद्वायुरजायत ॥
5.1.24. The Moon was born from His Mind, the Sun was born from His Eyes, Indra and Agni were born from His Mouth, and Vayu was born from His Breath.
5.1.25. नाभ्या आसीदन्तरिक्षं शीर्ष्णो द्यौः समवर्तत । पद्भ्यां भूमिर्दिशः श्रोत्रात्तथा लोकाँ अकल्पयन् ॥
5.1.26. His Navel became the Antariksha, the space between Heaven and Earth, His Head sustained the Heaven; From His Feet the earth was born, from His Ears the directions spread.
5.1.27. यज्ञेन यज्ञमयजन्त देवास्तानि धर्माणि प्रथमान्यासन् । ते ह नाकं महिमानः सचन्त यत्र पूर्वे साध्याः सन्ति देवाः ॥
5.1.28. The Devas performed the यज्ञ by meditating on the real यज्ञ i.e. the Purusha. As a result they obtained the Dharma. 1/2
5.1.29. By Meditating on the Greatness of the Chidakasha the essence of the Purusha, the Spiritual Aspirants became the Shining One themselves. 2/2
5.1.30. Even the dissolution of this creation was undertaken through a यज्ञ that sapped the food of all that existed so they became extinct.
5.1.31. Such a dissolution is a sacrifice all possessions meant to save Dharma.
5.1.32. Thus from beginning to end we see कर्म and यज्ञ go hand in hand.
5.1.33. Sacrifice is natural to everything as part of creation that came out of Viraat Purusha.
5.1.34. Krishna in Samkhya Yoga says you are really an eternal being and not something that appear & disappear because the body is born & dead.
5.1.35. In Karma Yoga Krishna says all bodies in this universe have only one role to play viz. perform karma.
5.1.36. Identifying ourselves as bodies we assume we are born & dead, we get the idea of “I” and “mine” and we think we kill or save.
5.1.37. Only जड or inert beings are born, grow, decay and die. चैतन्य or sentient beings have no such phenomenon.
5.1.38. Ganapathi Muni in his Satdharshanam records Bhagavan Ramana’s teaching on this subject as follows:
5.1.39. देहात्मभावे ज्ञजडौ समाना-वेकस्य देहे हृदि दीप्त आत्मा । आक्रम्य देहं च जगच्च पूर्णः परस्य मेयं तनुमात्रमात्मा ॥
5.1.40. Body is self to the wise and the ignorant alike. However the ignorant knows himself as limited to the body but the wise sees both the body and the world as his own Self, perfect and limitless!
5.1.41. Assuming himself as the limited body, the ignorant acquires this ममकारं (the sense of I and mine) and covets the fruits of his karma.
5.1.42. This coveting brings him back into the world of karma endlessly.
5.1.43. “You are born to work but not to covet its fruit” is an important message of Krishna in Chapter 2.
5.1.44. Continuing on this theme Krishna in Chapter 3 – Karma Yoga – reiterates that all that is born is destined to work.
5.1.45. Only the unborn, namely the Chaithanyam, this Self has no work there is nothing for it to gain. Why? Because it is already full & complete.
5.1.46. That which is born viz. the jeeva who thinks he is limited has a lot to gain by work which is the purification of the mind.
5.1.47. Work performed without coveting its fruit which fruit is dedicated to Easwara purifies the mind.
5.1.48. Only such a purified mind can absorb the truth that you are indeed the Real, the unborn and the free.
5.1.49. So Krishna exhorts Arjuna to perform his Karma as a sacrifice (यज्ञ) with the knowledge it brings about the purity of the mind.
5.1.50. In Chapter 4 – ज्ञानकर्मसंन्यसयोग: – Krishna continues this theme of sacrifice. Sacrifice is not a waste but it is fullness, Brahman.
5.1.51. ब्रह्मार्पणं ब्रह्म हविर्ब्रह्माग्नौ ब्रह्मणा हुतम् । ब्रह्मैव तेन गन्तव्यं ब्रह्मकर्मसमाधिना ॥ २४ ॥
5.1.52. The ladle is Brahman; the act of offering the oblation–which is Brahman–in the fire, which is Brahman by Brahman is Brahman indeed. This sacrificer, who concentrates on the act that is Brahman, reaches Brahman alone.
5.1.53. This pretty much sums up that the one performs karma dedicating to Easwara is indeed close to liberation.
5.1.54. Among the sacrifices the sacrifice of knowledge is superior to the sacrifice of materials. Thus the Guru is the liberator!
5.1.55. Action do not bind him who has dedicated his actions through yoga, whose actions (कर्म ) have been dedicated to Easwara.