श्रेयान्द्रव्यमयाद्यज्ञाज्ज्ञानयज्ञः परन्तप ।
सर्वं कर्माखिलं पार्थ ज्ञाने परिसमाप्यते ॥ ३३ ॥
4.1133. The sacrifice of knowledge, O scourge of enemies! is superior to the sacrifice of materials. All works, with no exception, Arjuna! culminate in knowledge.
4.1134. परन्तप O destroyer of enemies; on account of having Liberation as its direct result, ज्ञानयज्ञा : knowledge considered as sacrifice;
4.1135. is by itself श्रेयान् , greater, more commendable; द्रव्यमयाद्यज्ञात् than a sacrifice requiring materials–than even all the sacrifices suggested by it, which are devoid of knowledge and having transmigration as their result.
4.1136. Why so? Because, सर्वं all; कर्म actions, अखिलं in their totality, without exception–consisting in the performance of sacrifices and collection of animals and Soma as sanctioned by the Veda, as also actions such as उपासना, meditation, etc. sanctioned by the Smritis;
4.1137. they परिसमाप्यते culminate; ज्ञाने in the knowledge, in the realization of the identity of Brahman and the Self, through the process of elimination of the obstacles.
4.1138. How so? Because there are the srutis as follows:
4.1139. तमेतं वेदानुवचनेन ब्राह्मणा विविदिषन्ति यज्ञेन दानेन तपसानाशकेनैतमेव विदित्वा मुनिर्भवति । (Brih.U 4.4.22)
4.1140. The Brahmanas seek to know It through the study of the Vedas, sacrifice, charity, and austerity consisting in a dispassionate enjoyment of sense-objects.
4.1141. यथा कृतायविजितायाधरेयाः संयन्त्येवमेनं सर्वं तदभिसमैति यत्किंचप्रजाः साधु कुर्वन्ति यस्तद्वेद यत्स वेद
4.1142. As the lower throws of dice go to the highest throw, to the winner, so whatever good creatures do go to him, who knows what he knows. (Chandogyopanishad 4.1.4.)
तद्विद्धि प्रणिपातेन परिप्रश्नेन सेवया ।
उपदेक्ष्यन्ति ते ज्ञानं ज्ञानिनस्तत्त्वदर्शिनः ॥ ३४ ॥ (4.34)
4.1144.Acquire that through prostration, searching questions and service. The wise one who has realized will impart the knowledge to you.
4.1145. By approaching the teacher विद्दि acquire; तत् that, the Knowledge that is the result of all actions;
4.1146. प्रणिपातेन through prostration to them–prostration means falling down completely, saluting by a prone position (दीर्घनमस्कारः );
4.1147. परिप्रश्नेन through searching inquiry including “who am I?”, “How am in bondage?”, “What is the means of freedom?”;
4.1148. Thus becoming favorably disposed through excellence in humility accompanied by abundant devotion and faith,
4.1149. ज्ञानिन: the wise ones, who are well acquainted with words, sentences and valid means of knowledge such as reasoning;
4.1150. तत्त्वदर्शिनः who have realized the Truth, who have got direct enlightment;
4.1151. उपदेक्ष्यन्ति ते will impart to you, will make you attain through instructions;
4.1152. ज्ञानं Knowledge, regarding the supreme Self, which has the liberation as its direct result.
4.1153. It is clear that Knowledge is imparted only by the one who has Knowledge and not by the one who does not have or assumes he has.
4.1154. A person can be skilled in words and valid means of proof but wont qualify to be a teacher without Knowledge (enlightenment).
4.1155. तद्विज्ञानार्थं स गुरुमेवाभिगच्छेत्समित्पाणिः श्रोत्रियं ब्रह्मनिष्ठम् ॥ says Mundakopanishad 1.2.12
4.1156. “For knowing that Reality he should go, with समिध (dried twigs used for sacrificial fire indicating he is dried of all desires) in hand to a teacher who is absorbed in Brahman.”
4.1157. Adi Sankara had explained श्रोत्रियं means one who has studied the Vedas, and ब्रह्मनिष्ठं means one who has directly realized Brahman.
4.1158. ज्ञानिन: the plural word used for the teacher though one, is to indicate respect.
4.1159. This is stated to reinforce the idea Knowledge of Reality arises from a single teacher. it is incongruous to go to some other teacher for that purpose.
यज्ज्ञात्वा न पुनर्मोहमेवं यास्यसि पाण्डव ।
येन भूतान्यशेषेण द्रक्ष्यस्यात्मन्यथो मयि ॥ ३५ ॥ (4.35)
4.1161. By grasping the knowledge, O Pandava prince! you will no longer be deluded as you now are; and through that you will behold all beings in the Self and then in Me.
4.1162. ज्ञात्वा knowing, having acquired; यत् that, which knowledge imparted by the teachers; O Pandava, पुन: यास्यसि you will not again come under;
4.1163. एवं this kind of; मोहम् delusion, confusion caused by the killing etc. of relatives.
4.1164. Why is this so? verily because, through Knowledge भूतानि all beings, father, sons and others;
4.1165. अशेषेण without exception, beginning with Brahma and ending with a clump of grass, which are projections of your own ignorance;
4.1166. as existing non-differently indeed, आत्मनि in you who are the Self, denoted by the word त्वं thou (in the sentence तत् त्वं असि – that thou art);
4.1167. अतो and also मयि in Me (in Lord Krishna denoted by the word तत्), who in reality is non-different (from the Self) and is the sustratum;
4.1168. for, an imagined thing does not exist apart its substratum.
4.1169. The idea is, ‘When all ignorance is destroyed by realizing Me, Lord Vasudeva, as one’s own Self, the beings, which are the effects of that ignorance will cease to exist.
4.1170. ज्ञानं कथं नाशयति पापमिति ? How does knowledge destroy sin? The answer comes in the next session.