द्रव्ययज्ञास्तपोयज्ञा योगयज्ञास्तथापरे ।
स्वाध्यायज्ञानयज्ञाश्च यतयः संशितव्रताः ॥ २८ ॥ (4.28)
4.1001. Other ascetics, subject to severe disciplines, sacrifice their material possessions, their penances, spiritual exercises, prescribed lessons and knowledge.
4.1002. द्रव्य यज्ञा: are those whose sacrifice consists only in the giving up of (ownership of) things in accordance with the scriptures.
4.1003. They are engaged in the works called पूर्त and दत्त as prescribed by the smritis.
4.1004. Atri Samhita says: “Excavation of ponds, wells, tanks, etc. and the construcion of temples of gods, distribution of food, and building of rest houses are called पूर्त.
4.1005. Protection of those who take refuge, not injuring of living beings, and the charity that is made outside the sacrificial grounds are called दत्त.
4.1006. As for the Vedic work called इष्ट, however, it has been mentioned in ‘Other yogis always undertake sarifice to gods alone’ (BG 4.25).
4.1007. The charity made within the sacrificial ground is also included in that इष्ट itself.
4.1008. अग्निहोत्रं तप: सत्यं वेदानां च अनुपालनम् | अतित्यं वैस्वदेवस्च इष्टं इति अभिधीयते || (Tai.Sam 2.5.6)
4.1009. Performing the Agnihotra sacrifice and the austerities, observing truthfulness and the Vedic injunctions, entertaining guests, performing he Vaisa deva sacrifices–these are termed Ishta.
4.1010. Similarly, तपो यज्ञ:, men of austerity, are those whose sacrifice consists only in such austerities as कृच्छ्र (bodily mortification) and चान्द्रायण (increasing and decreasing of the food in accordance with the phases of the moon).
4.1011. Similarly, योग यज्ञा: are those to whom sacrifice consists in practising the eightfold Yoga for the restraint of the mental modifications.
4.1012. They are engaged in the practice of the eight limbs of Yoga viz. yama, niyama, asana, praaNaayaama, pratyaahaara, dhaaraNa, dhyaana and samaadhi.
4.1013. I dealt with pratyaahaara while explaining verse 4.26. Also dhaaraNa, dhyaana and samaadhi were dealt in verse 4.27.
4.1014. PraaNaayaama will be dealt with in the next verse, ‘some offer as a sacrifice PraaNa the outgoing breath in the apaana the incoming breath.
4.1015. Yama, niyama and asana are spoken of here. The five यम yamas are अहिंसा ahimsa (non-injury), सत्य satya (truthfulness), अस्तेय asteya (non-stealing), ब्रह्मचर्य brahmacharya (continence) and अपरिग्रह aprarigraha (non-acceptance of gifts).
4.1016. The five नियम niyamas are सौच saucha (cleanliness), संतोष santosha (contentment), तप: tapah (austerity), स्वाद्याय svaadyaaya (scriptural study, repetition of OM) and ईश्वरप्रणिधान isvara-pranidhaana (surrender to Easwara)
4.1017. Asana are the many kind of sitting postures such as पद्मक, स्वस्तिक etc.
4.1018. हिंसा is the killing of animals without scriptural sanction. They are of 3 kinds viz. (a) committed by oneself, (b) it is caused to be committed and (c) it is abetted.
4.1019. असत्य consists in speaking what is not factual and also in speaking what is factual that leads to injury to creatures that are not to be killed.
4.1020. स्तेय consists in acquiring another’s possession through means that are not sanctioned by the scriptures (sastras).
4.1021. परिग्रह is accepting of gifts or acquiring through ways prohibited by scriptures.
4.1022. Stoppage of the above or desisting from committing the above constitute yama (abstaining).
4.1023. सौच, purification is of two kinds – external and internal.
4.1024. External सौच is maintaining clean body, eating wholesome, moderate and sacremental food.
4.1025. Internal सौच consists in washing away the impurities of the mind such as arrogance, conceit through friendliness and joyousness.
4.1026. संतोष is a state of mind where craving for more than needed has no place.
4.1027. तप:is the austerity, the means of forbearing the dualities such as hunger and thirst, heat and cold.
4.1028. काष्ठ मौन means not expressing one’s mind through signs and आकार मौन means not speaking but using signs.
4.1029. स्वाध्याय study of the sastras leading to liberation and chanting of OM.
4.1030. ईश्वरप्रणिधान is the complete surrender and dedication to Him, without hankering for the fruits.
4.1031. These in the form of injunctions are the niyamas.
4.1032. Sri Krishna speaks of another sacrifice: यतयः the deligent ones;
4.1033. संशितव्रताः whose vows are severe, who are very firm in their vows treating the vows themselves as sacrifices.
4.1034. जातिदेशकालसमयानवच्छिन्नाः सार्वभौमा महाव्रतम्॥३१॥ (Patanjali Yoga Sutra 2.31)
4.1035. “These, when universal, unbroken by species, place, time and purpose, constitute the great vows”
4.1036. In the case of a hunter who says: “I shall not kill an animal other than a deer” is limited by speicies.
4.1037. If he says; “I shall not kill in a place of pilrimage” then it is limited by place.
4.1038. If he says: “I shall not kill on an auspicious day such as PourNami” then it is limited by time.
4.1039. If a kshathriya says: “I shall not kill unless it is in a battle” then it is limited by purpose.
4.1040. Or if you say: “I shall not utter a lie unless it is for the purpose of marriage” where it is again limited by purpose.
4.1041. Thus when non-injury etc., after being assiduously cultivated, are shorn of such limitations and becomes universal in respect of all species, all places, all times and all purposes then they are called ‘Maha vratas’ or great vows.
4.1042. When the vows of this kind become firmly established, there follows the cessasion of all the four, viz. desire, anger, greed and delusion which are the gates to hell.
4.1043. The elimination of anger comes from non-injury and forgiving.
4.1044. The eliminaion of desire comes from continence and deliberations on Reality.
4.1045. The elimination of greed comes from contentment in the form of non-stealing and non-acceptance.
4.1046. The elimination of delusion comes from proper knowledge.