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अज्ञश्चाश्रद्दधानश्च संशयात्मा विनश्यति ।
नायं लोकोऽस्ति न परो न सुखं संशयात्मनः ॥ ४० ॥ (4.40)

4.1211. The ignorant, the man devoid of sraddha, the doubting self, goes to destruction. Neither this world nor the next nor happiness exists for one who has a doubting mind.

4.1212. अज्ञ : the ignorant one, one who lacks the Knowledge of the Self on account of not having studied the scriptures.

4.1213. अस्रद्द is faithlessness, in the form of an erroneous notion ‘this cannot be so’ on what the sastras or teacher say.

4.1214. One who has अस्रद्द is अस्रद्दधान संशयात्मा ie. one whose mind is ridden with doubt, ‘this may or may not be so’ about everything.

4.1215. Such one विनश्यति perishes ie. deprived of his own goal.

4.1216. The doubter has a greater shortcoming than the one who is ignorant and who has no faith. How?

4.1217. One who has a doubting mind is verily more sinful than all others because

4.1218. संशयात्मन :, one who has a doubting mind, one whose mind is ridden with doubt about everything;

4.1219. अयं लोक : this human world, न अस्ति does not exist, on account of his not earning the punya;

4.1220. न पर : nor the other world ie. heaven, liberation etc. on account of absence of dharma, ज्ञान etc; न सुखं nor happiness, arising from eating etc.

4.1221. For one who is ignorant and one who is faithless the other world does not exist but the human world of happiness does exist.

4.1222. However the man with a doubting mind is a complete loser of all the three worlds.

योगसंन्यस्तकर्माणं ज्ञानसंछिन्नसंशयम् ।
आत्मवन्तं न कर्माणि निबध्नन्ति धनञ्जय ॥ ४१ ॥ (4.41)

4.1224. Arjuna! works bind not him who is vigilant, who through Yoga, has renounced works and who has slain doubts with knowledge.

4.1225.Action do not bind योग-संन्यस्त-कर्माणं one wo has dedicated his actions through yoga, one by whom actions (कर्म ) have been dedicated संन्यस्त to Easwara through yoga consisting in the attiude of equanimity that is characterised by adoration of Easwara; or, by whom actions have been renounced through yoga consisting in the realization of the highest truth.

4.1226. How can one have renunciation of all actions through yoga so long as there is doubt?

4.1227. Hence, the Lord says, ज्ञानसंछिन्नसंशयम्, one whose doubt has been dispelled by Knowledge, on by whom doubt dispelled (छिन्न) by Knowledge (ज्ञान) in the form of certitude about the Self.

4.1228. How can Knowledge arise so long as there is inadvertance in the form of being under the sway of objects?

4.1229. So Krishna says, आत्मवन्तं one who is not inadvertant, one who is always careful.

4.1230. O Dhananjaya, कर्माणि actions which are for लोकसंग्रह or which are in the form of purposeless movements;

4.1231. न do not; निबध्नन्ति bind, do not produce for him any body that is either desireable or undesireable or a mixture of both, who is possessed of Knowledge as a result of being not inadvertant, who has dedicated his actions through yoga as a consequence of his doubts having been dispelled by Knowledge.

4.1231. Since this is so–
तस्मादज्ञानसंभूतं हृत्स्थं ज्ञानासिनात्मनः ।
छित्त्वैनं संशयं योगमातिष्ठोत्तिष्ठ भारत ॥ ४२ ॥ (4.42)

4.1232. Therefore, O scion of Bharata dynasty, practice yoga and rise up, cutting asunder with the sword of Self-Knowledge this doubt of yours residing in the heart and arising from ignorance.

4.1233. अज्ञान-संभूतं means ‘arising from ignorance, non-discrimination’. हृत्स्थं means ‘residing in the heart, in the intellect’.

4.1234. Since when the source and the abode of an enemy are known he can easily be killed, therefore both have been mentioned.

4.1235. छित्त्वा cutting asunder; आत्मन: ज्ञान-असिना with the sword of Self-Knowledge, with the sword in the form of conviction about the Self; एनं this; संशयं doubt (of yours), which is the root of all evils; अतिष्ट practise;

4.1236. योग yoga, unmotivated action, which is the means to right vision.

4.1237. So, भारत scion of Bharata dynasty; उत्तिष्ठ rise up for battle.

4.1238. The idea is: For you born in the line of Bharata, the firm resolve for battle will not be useless.

4.1239. Thus ends Chapter 4 – ज्ञानकर्मसंन्यसयोग: – YOGA OF RENUNCIATION OF ACTION IN KNOWLEDGE.


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अपि चेदसि पापेभ्यः सर्वेभ्यः पापकृत्तमः ।

सर्वं ज्ञानप्लवेनैव वृजिनं सन्तरिष्यसि ॥ ३६ ॥ (4.36)

4.1172. Even if you be the worst sinner among all sinners, you will still cross over all sin with the raft of knowledge alone.

4.1173. The words अपि 3even, and चेद् if, are really indeclineables meant for station the supposition of something that is impossible.

4.1174. This literal meaning of the first line of the verse is therefore, impossible for anyone to be only a sinner.

4.1175. Yet it is spoken of through an assumption for stating the result of Knowledge.

4.1176. Even if you be the  पापकृत्तमः, the worst sinner, excessive perpetrator of sin; सर्वेभ्यः among all sinners;

4.1177. still, सन्तरिष्यसि you will cross over–YOU WILL, easily and without having to return, go beyond;

4.1178. सर्वम् all;  वृजिनं sin, which being very difficult to cross over is comparable to an ocean;

4.1179. ज्ञान प्लवेन  एव with the raft of knowledge alone–not through anything else–, making knowledge itself the raft.

4.1180. By the word वृजिन here are the intended deeds–in the form of धर्म and अधर्म–which lead to transmigration.

4.1181. Why? Because to the one aspiring for Liberation, virtue like vice is a source of evil.

4.1182. अपि चेत् असि पापेभ्यः पापकृद्भ्यः सर्वेभ्यः अतिशयेन पापकृत् पापकृत्तमः सर्वं ज्ञानप्लवेनैव ज्ञानमेव प्लवं कृत्वा वृजिनं वृजिनार्णवं पापसमुद्रं सन्तरिष्यसि ।

4.1183. Even if among all sinners, you are the worst, you will cross the sea of sins by means of this raft of knowledge alone. This knowledge is the raft. Even पुण्य is said to be a form of sin for the seeker of Liberation for पुण्य causes bondage and brings you back into samsara.


यथैधांसि समिद्धोऽग्निर्भस्मसात्कुरुतेऽर्जुन ।

ज्ञानाग्निः सर्वकर्माणि भस्मसात्कुरुते तथा ॥ ३७ ॥ (4.37)

4.1185. As a blazing fire reduces all fuel to ashes, so Arjuna! the fire of knowledge reduces all actions (कर्मा) to ashes.

4.1186. O Arjuna, यथा as; समिद्द: kindled; अग्नि: fire; भस्मसात्कुरुते reduces to ashes; येधांसि pieces of wood, fuel; तथा similarly;

4.1187. ज्ञानाग्निः the fire of knowledge; भस्मसात्कुरुते reduces to ashes;

4.1188. सर्वकर्माणि all actions–virtue and vice included (other than those that have begun to yield fruits);

4.1189. That is to say it destroys the actions by destroying their cause viz. ignorance.

4.1190. Mundakopanishad says:

भिद्यते हृदयग्रन्थिश्छिद्यन्ते सर्वसंशयाः ।

क्षीयन्ते चास्य कर्माणि तस्मिन्दृष्टे परावरे ॥

4.1191. When that Self, which is both high and low, is realized, the knots of his heart are cut, all doubts disappear and his karma are destroyed.

4.1192. ’तस्य तावदेव चिरं यावन्न विमोक्ष्येऽथ सम्पत्स्ये” (Chandogyopanishad)

4.1193. He has to wait only as long as he is unreleased; then he attains perfection.

4.1194. अतो यानि अप्रवृत्तफलानि ज्ञानोत्पत्तेः प्राक् कृतानि ज्ञानसहभावीनि च अतीतानेकजन्मकृतानि च तान्येव सर्वाणि भस्मसात् कुरुते ॥

4.1195. Hence only those works, which were done in countless prior lives before the dawn of knowledge, and which have not yet begun to bear fruits, as well as those which coexist with knowledge are burnt up.


न हि ज्ञानेन सदृशं पवित्रमिह विद्यते ।

तत्स्वयं योगसंसिद्धः कालेनात्मनि विन्दति ॥ ३८ ॥ (4.38)

4.1197. Nothing exists here as purifying as the Knowledge. He that is perfected in Yoga realizes in his own heart in due time.

4.1198. हि indeed; न विद्यते there is nothing else; पवित्रम् purifying; इह here, either in the Veda or in common behaviour;

4.1199. सदृशं comparable; ज्ञानेन to knowledge; because whatever is different from Knowledge cannot dispel ignorance;

4.1200. and hence it has not the power of totally eradicating sin, as a result of which sin recurs due to the presence of its cause.

4.1201. But by Knowledge sin is eradicated, together with its root, through the destruction of ignorance.

4.1202. Hence there is nothing comparable to Knowledge.

4.1203. Why does not the Knowledge of the Self arise in all quickly?

 4.1204. योगसंसिद्धः कालेन one who has become perfected after long time through Yoga, who has become purified,

4.1205. and attained the fitness through the above mentioned Yoga of Action;

 4.1206. विन्दति acquires; तत् that Knowledge; स्वयं by oneself; आत्मनि in one’s own heart; The idea is:

4.1207. It is not that one who has got the fitness acquires that Knowledge existing in oneself as a gift from someone else, or

4.1208. that he acquires that knowledge of someone else, as his own.

4.1209. Only you can know yourself; Neither can you know the Self of another nor another can know the Self of you.

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श्रेयान्द्रव्यमयाद्यज्ञाज्ज्ञानयज्ञः परन्तप ।
सर्वं कर्माखिलं पार्थ ज्ञाने परिसमाप्यते ॥ ३३ ॥

4.1133. The sacrifice of knowledge, O scourge of enemies! is superior to the sacrifice of materials. All works, with no exception, Arjuna! culminate in knowledge.

4.1134. परन्तप O destroyer of enemies; on account of having Liberation as its direct result, ज्ञानयज्ञा : knowledge considered as sacrifice;

4.1135. is by itself श्रेयान् , greater, more commendable; द्रव्यमयाद्यज्ञात् than a sacrifice requiring materials–than even all the sacrifices suggested by it, which are devoid of knowledge and having transmigration as their result.

4.1136. Why so? Because, सर्वं all; कर्म actions, अखिलं in their totality, without exception–consisting in the performance of sacrifices and collection of animals and Soma as sanctioned by the Veda, as also actions such as उपासना, meditation, etc. sanctioned by the Smritis;

4.1137. they परिसमाप्यते culminate; ज्ञाने in the knowledge, in the realization of the identity of Brahman and the Self, through the process of elimination of the obstacles.

4.1138. How so? Because there are the srutis as follows:

4.1139. तमेतं वेदानुवचनेन ब्राह्मणा विविदिषन्ति यज्ञेन दानेन तपसानाशकेनैतमेव विदित्वा मुनिर्भवति । (Brih.U 4.4.22)

4.1140. The Brahmanas seek to know It through the study of the Vedas, sacrifice, charity, and austerity consisting in a dispassionate enjoyment of sense-objects.

4.1141. यथा कृतायविजितायाधरेयाः संयन्त्येवमेनं सर्वं तदभिसमैति यत्किंचप्रजाः साधु कुर्वन्ति यस्तद्वेद यत्स वेद

4.1142. As the lower throws of dice go to the highest throw, to the winner, so whatever good creatures do go to him, who knows what he knows. (Chandogyopanishad 4.1.4.)

तद्विद्धि प्रणिपातेन परिप्रश्नेन सेवया ।
उपदेक्ष्यन्ति ते ज्ञानं ज्ञानिनस्तत्त्वदर्शिनः ॥ ३४ ॥ (4.34)

4.1144.Acquire that through prostration, searching questions and service. The wise one who has realized will impart the knowledge to you.

4.1145. By approaching the teacher विद्दि acquire; तत् that, the Knowledge that is the result of all actions;

4.1146. प्रणिपातेन through prostration to them–prostration means falling down completely, saluting by a prone position (दीर्घनमस्कारः );

4.1147. परिप्रश्नेन through searching inquiry including “who am I?”, “How am in bondage?”, “What is the means of freedom?”;

4.1148. Thus becoming favorably disposed through excellence in humility accompanied by abundant devotion and faith,

4.1149. ज्ञानिन: the wise ones, who are well acquainted with words, sentences and valid means of knowledge such as reasoning;

4.1150. तत्त्वदर्शिनः who have realized the Truth, who have got direct enlightment;

4.1151. उपदेक्ष्यन्ति ते will impart to you, will make you attain through instructions;

4.1152. ज्ञानं Knowledge, regarding the supreme Self, which has the liberation as its direct result.

4.1153. It is clear that Knowledge is imparted only by the one who has Knowledge and not by the one who does not have or assumes he has.

4.1154. A person can be skilled in words and valid means of proof but wont qualify to be a teacher without Knowledge (enlightenment).

4.1155. तद्विज्ञानार्थं स गुरुमेवाभिगच्छेत्समित्पाणिः श्रोत्रियं ब्रह्मनिष्ठम् ॥ says Mundakopanishad 1.2.12

4.1156. “For knowing that Reality he should go, with समिध (dried twigs used for sacrificial fire indicating he is dried of all desires) in hand to a teacher who is absorbed in Brahman.”

4.1157. Adi Sankara had explained श्रोत्रियं means one who has studied the Vedas, and ब्रह्मनिष्ठं means one who has directly realized Brahman.

4.1158. ज्ञानिन: the plural word used for the teacher though one, is to indicate respect.

4.1159. This is stated to reinforce the idea Knowledge of Reality arises from a single teacher. it is incongruous to go to some other teacher for that purpose.

यज्ज्ञात्वा न पुनर्मोहमेवं यास्यसि पाण्डव ।
येन भूतान्यशेषेण द्रक्ष्यस्यात्मन्यथो मयि ॥ ३५ ॥ (4.35)

4.1161. By grasping the knowledge, O Pandava prince! you will no longer be deluded as you now are; and through that you will behold all beings in the Self and then in Me.

4.1162. ज्ञात्वा knowing, having acquired; यत् that, which knowledge imparted by the teachers; O Pandava, पुन: यास्यसि you will not again come under;

4.1163. एवं this kind of; मोहम् delusion, confusion caused by the killing etc. of relatives.

4.1164. Why is this so? verily because, through Knowledge भूतानि all beings, father, sons and others;

4.1165. अशेषेण without exception, beginning with Brahma and ending with a clump of grass, which are projections of your own ignorance;

4.1166. as existing non-differently indeed, आत्मनि in you who are the Self, denoted by the word त्वं thou (in the sentence तत् त्वं असि – that thou art);

4.1167. अतो and also मयि in Me (in Lord Krishna denoted by the word तत्), who in reality is non-different (from the Self) and is the sustratum;

4.1168. for, an imagined thing does not exist apart its substratum.

4.1169. The idea is, ‘When all ignorance is destroyed by realizing Me, Lord Vasudeva, as one’s own Self, the beings, which are the effects of that ignorance will cease to exist.

4.1170. ज्ञानं कथं नाशयति पापमिति ? How does knowledge destroy sin? The answer comes in the next session.

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सर्वेऽप्येते यज्ञविदो यज्ञक्षपितकल्मषाः ॥ ३० ॥ (4.30)
यज्ञशिष्टामृतभुजो यान्ति ब्रह्म सनातनम् ।

4.1106. Those who are conversant with sacrifices have their sins destroyed by the sacrifices. They partake the ambrosial remains of these sacrifices to reach the eternal Brahman.

4.1107. यज्ञविद : means those who know or come to possess the sacrifices ie. those who know or perform the sacrifices.

4.1108. यज्ञक्षपितकल्मषाः means those whose sins (कल्मष) have been destroyed (क्षपित) by the sacrifices (यज्ञ).

4.1109. यज्ञशिष्टामृतभुज: means those who eat (भुज् ) the food that is meant by the word अमृत during the period left after (शिष्ट) the performance of the sacrifice (यज्ञ )

4.1110. यज्ञानां शिष्टं यज्ञशिष्टं यज्ञशिष्टं च तत् अमृतं च यज्ञशिष्टामृतं तत् भुञ्जते इति यज्ञशिष्टामृतभुजः

4.1111. The remains of sacrifices are what is left over; it is ambrosia. The sacrificers partake of it.

4.1112. सर्वे अपि all of them; यान्ति reach; the सनातनम् eternal; ब्रह्म Brahman, through the process of purification of the mind and attainment of knowledge; i.e. they become liberated from transmigration.

4.1113. नायं लोकोऽस्त्ययज्ञस्य कुतोऽन्यः कुरुसत्तम ॥ ३१ ॥ (4.31)

4.1114. This world ceases to exist for one who does not perform sacrifices. How can there be other world, O best among Kurus.

4.1115. अयज्ञ: is one who does not possess even a single sacrifice. For him, even अयं this; human लोक : world, having little joy;

4.1116. न अस्ति does not exist, because of his being condemnable by all.

4.1117. कुत : अन्य : how can there be the other world that is achievable through special disciplines; कुरुसत्तम O best of Kurus.

4.1118. न अयं लोकः सर्वप्राणिसाधारणोऽपि अस्ति यथोक्तानां यज्ञानां एकोऽपि यज्ञः यस्य नास्ति सः अयज्ञः तस्य ।

4.1119. Even this world of human beings is not won by him who performs not even one of these sacrifices.

4.1120. कुतः अन्यो विशिष्टसाधनसाध्यः कुरुसत्तम ॥

4.1121. How then can he win the other world that calls for special causal collocations?

एवं बहुविधा यज्ञा वितता ब्रह्मणो मुखे ।
कर्मजान्विद्धि तान्सर्वानेवं ज्ञात्वा विमोक्ष्यसे ॥ ३२ ॥ (4.32)

4.1123. Thus have many sacrifices been spread out in the mouth of the Vedas. Know them all to be born of works. Knowing thus you will become liberated.

4.1124. बहुविधा: various kinds; of यज्ञा : sacrifices;

4.1125. एवं as mentioned above, which are the means of attaining all the vedic auspicious goals;

4.1126. वितता: lie spread; मुखे at the mouth; ब्रह्मण : of the Vedas.

4.1127. तद्यथा ‘वाचि हि प्राणं जुहुमः’ For example, “we sacrifice the vital breaths in speech” (Aithreya Aaranyaka 3.26)

4.1128. That is they are known only through the Vedas. But the Vedic sentences are not quoted individually for fear of prolixity.

4.1129. विद्दि know; तान् them; सर्वान् all, the sacrifices; कर्मजान् to be born of action, as born of physical, oral & mental actions.

4.1130. कर्मजान् what is born of actions is indeed not born of Self for the Self is actionless and they are not its functions.

4.1131. ज्ञात्वा knowing; एवं thus; विमोक्ष्यसे you will become liberated (from bondage of transmigration).

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अपाने जुह्वति प्राणं प्राणेऽपानं तथापरे ।
प्राणापानगती रुद्ध्वा प्राणायामपरायणाः ॥ २९ ॥ (4.29)
अपरे नियताहाराः प्राणान्प्राणेषु जुह्वति ।

4.1048. Some intent on breath-control (प्राणायाम), blocking the movemnt of the in-breath and out-breath, sacrifice the in-breath in the out-breath, and similarly, sacrifice the out-breath in the in-breath.

4.1049. (some) जुह्वति, offer as sacrifice; the function of the vital force called PraaNa (प्राण) , अपाने in the function of Apaana.

4.1050. That is, they perform the PraaNayama called Pooraka (filling in) by filling the external air into the body.

4.1051. तथा अपरे still others; offer अपानं the Apaana; प्राणे in the PraaNa.

4.1052. That is they perform PraNayama called Rechaka (throwing out) by expelling the air within the body.

4.1053. Automatically Kumbhaka (holding on the breath) is also practiced as it is inseparable from Pooraka and Rechaka.

4.1054. The internal Kumbhaka is when the stoppage of inhalation and exhalation is practised after drawing in the air according to one’s capacity.

4.1055. After having mentioned these three praaNayaamas Sri Krishna speaks of the fourth which is a Kumbhaka: प्राणापानगती, the movement of PraaNa and Apaana.

4.1056. The movement of PraaNa consists in the outflow of internal air, exhalation, through nostrils and the mouth.

4.1057. The movement of Apaana consists in the inflow, inhalation, of the externalized air.

4.1058. Among them, in Pooraka there occurs the stoppage of the movement of PraaNa.

4.1059. In Rechaka there occurs the stoppage of the movement of PraaNa. In Kumbhaka both movements are stopped.

4.1060. Thus, अपरे others, who are different from the earlier ones, प्राणायामपरायणाः who remain engaged in praaNaayama;

4.1061. प्राणापानगती रुद्ध्वा by stopping the movements of PraaNa and Apaana, called exhalation and inhalation, successively and simultaneously;

4.1062. And who are नियत आहाराः, well regulated in their food, who are endued with the discipline of Yoga viz. regulation of food etc;

4.1063. जुह्वति offer (as a sacrifice), i.e. merge, through the practice of Kumbhaka, the fourth (praaNaayaama);

4.1064. प्राणान् the praaNaas in the form of sense organs and motor organs; प्राणेषु in the praaNaas, in the vital forces, which have been controlled through the practice of external and internal Kumbhakas.

4.1065. Patanjali says in his Yoga Sutra 2.49 तस्मिन्सति श्वासप्रश्वासयोर्गतिविच्छेदः प्राणायामः The meaning is:

4.1066. When that is there, then comes प्राणायामः in the form of the stoppage of movements of exhalation and inhalation.

4.1067. To explain तस्मिन्सति after the aasana the posture or seat becomes steady; प्राणायामः praaNaayaama should be practised.

4.1068. Of what kind? श्वासप्रश्वासयोर्गतिविच्छेदः in the form of stoppage of the movements of exhalationa and inhalation;

4.1069. it is that which is characterized as the विच्छेद stoppage itself–successively and simultaneously, through personal effort.

4.1070. of the gati or movements–of the natural flow occuring without personal effort;

4.1071. श्वासप्रश्वासयो: of the exhalation and inhalation, the functions of PraaNa and Apaana.

4.1072. Patanjali continues this theme on the next sutra: बाह्याभ्यन्तरस्तम्भवृत्तिः देशकालसङ्ख्याभिः परिदृष्टो दीर्घसूक्ष्मः (2.50)

4.1073. That praaNaayaama has external movement, internal movement and stoppage;

4.1074. These when tested according to distance, time and number become long and subtle.

4.1075. Since Pooraka consists in the stoppage of the outward movement of breath, therefore the phrase बाह्य वृत्ति (outward movement referred in the sutra) stands for Pooraka.

4.1076. Since Rechaka consists in the stoppage of the inward movement of breath, therefore the phrase आभ्यन्तरस्तम्भवृत्ति inward movement stands for Rechaka.

4.1077. Some also explain बाह्य as Rechaka, आन्तर (in आभ्यन्तर) as Pooraka.

4.1078. स्तम्भ is the simultaneous stoppage of both movements. This action is Kumbhaka.

4.1079. Vachaspati Mishra comments on this sutra (2.50) as follows:

“…when there is absence of both exhalation and inhalation as a result of a single effort to stop them–not, again, the necessity of controlling the continuous tendency of air for filling in as before, or the necessity of controlling the continuous tendency of air for moving out–, then, on the other hand, just as water poured on a heated stone dries up, gets reduced from all sides, similarly air, which is apt to move, becoming restrained from moving through a mighty effort of control, remains in the body itself in a subtle form. It does not fill in by which it becomes Pooraka; nor does it move out by which it becomes Rechaka.”

4.1080. This threefold praaNaayaama (Pooraka, Rechaka and Kumbhaka) when examined from the point of view of distance, time and number, is termed long and subtle.

4.1081. Just as a compressed lump of cotton becomes, when spun, long and fine owing to thinness, similarly praaNa also, through practice of praaNaayaama, by increasing its distace, time and number, becomes long as well as subtle by reason of its becoming difficult to perceive.

4.1082. To explain: Breath, starting from the heart, extends up to a distance of 12 fingers in front of the nose.

4.1083. And returning from there itself, it enters up to the heart. This is the natural movement of PraaNa and Apaana.

4.1084. By practice however, it gradually comes out from the navel or from Muladhara (located just above the organ of generation).

4.1085. It terminates at a distance of 24 fingers or 36 fingers from the nose.

4.1086. The entry also is to be understood as spreading over that much distance.

4.1087. As to that, its extension is the space outside is to be determined throgh the movement of the fine cotton-like fibres at the tip of a reed etc. in a windless location.

4.1088. The internal distance also is to be inferred from the sensation inside akin to that of the movement of an ant on the skin.

4.1089. Similarly a क्षण is one-fourth of the time taken by the blinking of an eye.

4.1090. मात्रा is the time taken for snapping a finger after encircling one’s kneecap 3 times with ones palm.

4.1091. The first उद्घात in 36 such मात्रा is मन्द (weak); When it is doubled then it is second उद्घात known as मध्य or medium.

4.1092. When this उद्घात is trebled then it is called तीव्र or intense.

4.1093. The striking at the head by the air as it is expelled on being pushed from the root of the navel is called उद्घात.

4.1094. This as such is the determination of the time and the number.

4.1095. The time and number were talked separately to speak of a slight difference between them.

4.1096. Although in Kumbhaka no spatial extent is understood, the time and number are definitely understood.

4.1097. That three-fold praaNaayaama when practised everyday, is said to be long because of its extension over distance, time and number, as days, weeks and months progress; and to be fine since it is mastered through great skill.

4.1098. In Sutra 2.51 बाह्याभ्यन्तरविषयाक्षेपी चतुर्थः॥५१॥ Patanjali says: the fourth is independent of those which are concerned with the external and the internal.

4.1099. The outgoing breath concerned with the external distance, time and number, is called Rechaka.

4.1100. The inflowing breath concerned with the internal is called Pooraka. This may also be contrariwise.

4.1101. Depending on these two, Kumbhaka, the third praanaayaama which is of two kinds according to the difference of being external or internal, occurs through a mighty single effort at suspension.

4.1102. The fourth praaNaayaama which is a Kumbhaka comes from a repeated efforts for it through skillfulness in the practice of Kumbhaka alone, independently of both Rechana and Pooraka.

4.1103. Thus बाह्य आभ्यन्तर विषय आक्षेपी means independently of those Rechaka and Pooraka.

4.1104. PraaNaayaama, which is of four kinds, has been explained by this one and half verse of Bhagavat Geetha.

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द्रव्ययज्ञास्तपोयज्ञा योगयज्ञास्तथापरे ।

स्वाध्यायज्ञानयज्ञाश्च यतयः संशितव्रताः ॥ २८ ॥ (4.28)

4.1001. Other ascetics, subject to severe disciplines, sacrifice their material possessions, their penances, spiritual exercises, prescribed lessons and knowledge.

4.1002. द्रव्य यज्ञा: are those whose sacrifice consists only in the giving up of (ownership of) things in accordance with the scriptures.

4.1003. They are engaged in the works called पूर्त and दत्त as prescribed by the smritis.

4.1004. Atri Samhita says: “Excavation of ponds, wells, tanks, etc. and the construcion of temples of gods, distribution of food, and building of rest houses are called पूर्त.

4.1005. Protection of those who take refuge, not injuring of living beings, and the charity that is made outside the sacrificial grounds are called दत्त.

4.1006. As for the Vedic work called इष्ट, however, it has been mentioned in ‘Other yogis always undertake sarifice to gods alone’ (BG 4.25).

4.1007. The charity made within the sacrificial ground is also included in that इष्ट  itself.

4.1008. अग्निहोत्रं तप: सत्यं वेदानां च अनुपालनम् | अतित्यं वैस्वदेवस्च इष्टं इति अभिधीयते || (Tai.Sam 2.5.6)

4.1009. Performing the Agnihotra sacrifice and the austerities, observing truthfulness and the Vedic injunctions, entertaining guests, performing he Vaisa deva sacrifices–these are termed Ishta.

4.1010. Similarly, तपो यज्ञ:, men of austerity, are those whose sacrifice consists only in such austerities as कृच्छ्र (bodily mortification) and चान्द्रायण (increasing and decreasing of the food in accordance with the phases of the moon).

4.1011. Similarly, योग यज्ञा: are those to whom sacrifice consists in practising the eightfold Yoga for the restraint of the mental modifications.

4.1012. They are engaged in the practice of the eight limbs of Yoga viz. yama, niyama, asana, praaNaayaama, pratyaahaara, dhaaraNa, dhyaana and samaadhi.

4.1013. I dealt with pratyaahaara while explaining verse 4.26. Also dhaaraNa, dhyaana and samaadhi were dealt in verse 4.27.

4.1014. PraaNaayaama will be dealt with in the next verse, ‘some offer as a sacrifice PraaNa the outgoing breath in the apaana the incoming breath.

4.1015. Yama, niyama and asana are spoken of here. The five यम yamas are अहिंसा ahimsa (non-injury), सत्य satya (truthfulness), अस्तेय asteya (non-stealing), ब्रह्मचर्य brahmacharya (continence) and अपरिग्रह aprarigraha (non-acceptance of gifts).

4.1016. The five नियम niyamas are सौच saucha (cleanliness),  संतोष santosha (contentment), तप: tapah (austerity), स्वाद्याय svaadyaaya (scriptural study, repetition of OM) and  ईश्वरप्रणिधान isvara-pranidhaana  (surrender to Easwara)

4.1017. Asana are the many kind of sitting postures such as पद्मक, स्वस्तिक etc.

4.1018. हिंसा is the killing of animals without scriptural sanction. They are of 3 kinds viz. (a) committed by oneself, (b) it is caused to be committed and (c) it is abetted.

4.1019. असत्य consists in speaking what is not factual and also in speaking what is factual that leads to injury to creatures that are not to be killed.

4.1020. स्तेय consists in acquiring another’s possession through means that are not sanctioned by the scriptures (sastras).

4.1021.  परिग्रह is accepting of gifts or acquiring through ways prohibited by scriptures.

4.1022. Stoppage of the above or desisting from committing the above constitute yama (abstaining).

4.1023. सौच, purification is of two kinds – external and internal.

4.1024. External सौच is maintaining clean body, eating wholesome, moderate and sacremental food.

4.1025. Internal सौच consists in washing away the impurities of the mind such as arrogance, conceit through friendliness and joyousness.

4.1026. संतोष is a state of mind where craving for more than needed has no place.

4.1027. तप:is the austerity, the means of forbearing the dualities such as hunger and thirst, heat and cold.

4.1028. काष्ठ मौन means not expressing one’s mind through signs and आकार मौन means not speaking but using signs.

4.1029.  स्वाध्याय study of the sastras leading to liberation and chanting of OM.

4.1030. ईश्वरप्रणिधान is the complete surrender and dedication to Him, without hankering for the fruits.

4.1031. These in the form of injunctions are the niyamas.

4.1032. Sri Krishna speaks of another sacrifice: यतयः the deligent ones;

4.1033. संशितव्रताः whose vows are severe, who are very firm in their vows treating the vows themselves as sacrifices.

4.1034. जातिदेशकालसमयानवच्छिन्नाः सार्वभौमा महाव्रतम्॥३१॥ (Patanjali Yoga Sutra 2.31)

4.1035. “These, when universal, unbroken by species, place, time and purpose, constitute the great vows”

4.1036. In the case of a hunter who says: “I shall not kill an animal other than a deer” is limited by speicies.

4.1037. If he says; “I shall not kill in a place of pilrimage”  then it is limited by place.

4.1038. If he says: “I shall not kill on an auspicious day such as PourNami” then it is limited by time.

4.1039. If a kshathriya says: “I shall not kill unless it is in a battle” then it is limited by purpose.

4.1040. Or if you say: “I shall not utter a lie unless it is for the purpose of marriage” where it is again limited by purpose.

4.1041. Thus when non-injury etc., after being assiduously cultivated, are shorn of such limitations and becomes universal in respect of all species, all places, all times and all purposes then they are called ‘Maha vratas’ or great vows.

4.1042. When the vows of this kind become firmly established, there follows the cessasion of all the four, viz. desire, anger, greed and delusion which are the gates to hell.

4.1043. The elimination of anger comes from non-injury and forgiving.

4.1044. The eliminaion of desire comes from continence and deliberations on Reality.

4.1045. The elimination of greed comes from contentment in the form of non-stealing and non-acceptance.

4.1046. The elimination of delusion comes from proper knowledge.

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