BHAGAVAT GEETHA – CHAPTER 4 – ज्ञानकर्मसंन्यसयोग: – YOGA OF RENUNCIATION OF ACTION IN KNOWLEDGE – PART 20

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BHAGAVAT GEETHA – CHAPTER 4 – ज्ञानकर्मसंन्यसयोग: – YOGA OF RENUNCIATION OF ACTION IN KNOWLEDGE – PART 19

4.943.
सर्वाणीन्द्रियकर्माणि प्राणकर्माणि चापरे ।
आत्मसंयमयोगाग्नौ जुह्वति ज्ञानदीपिते ॥ २७ ॥ (4.27)

4.944. Others offer all the activities of the organs and the activities of the vital forces (pancha praaNa) into the fire of Yoga–in the form संयमा on the Self–which has been lighted by Knowledge.

4.945. Samaadhi is indeed of two kinds–one through the process of laya (dissolution) and the other through baadha (sublation or negation).

4.946. I now take you to Brahma Sutra 2.1.14 तदनन्यत्वमारम्भणशब्दादिभ्यः meaning “There is non-difference of those cause and effect on account of the texts about origin etc.”

4.947. An effect cannot exist apart from the cause.

4.948. Therefore the individual form brought about by the intermingled five gross elements, being the effect of Viraat that is the cosmic form.

4.949. This cosmic form is brought about by the intermingled five gross elements being an effect of the unintermingled five great subtle elements.

4.950. Thus we are saying the intermingled five gross elements does not exist apart from the unintermingled five great subtle elements.

4.951. There again, the element प्रित्वि (earth) having the five qualities called sound, touch, color, taste and odour being an effect of आप: (water) which has the four qualities other than odour, does not exist apart from water.

4.952. That water having four qualities being an effect of अग्नि (fire) which has the three qualities other than odour and taste does not exist other than fire.

4.953. That fire too having three qualities being an effect of वायु (air) which has two qualities other than odour, taste and color does not exist apart from air.

4.954. That air which has two qualities being an effect of आकाश (space) having the only quality of sound does not exist apart from space.

4.955. And that space, possessing the quality of sound being an effect of अहङ्कार (egoism) in the form of the resolve of the supreme Lord “Let me become many” does not exist apart from egoism (ahamkaara).

4.956. Even that ahamkaara which is in the form of resolve being an effect of the principle of महत् (mahat) in the form of Lord’s thinking about Maayaa does not exist apart from Mahat.

4.957. That Mahat too which is of the nature of thought being a transformation of Maayaa does not exist apart from it (माया ).

4.958. Again that cause called माया which on account of its being insentient is superimposed on Consciousness (आत्मन्), does not exist apart from Consciousness.

4.959. That Samaadhi which through such deliberation has Consciousness alone for its object.

4.960. This is, despite the fact that the cosmos consisting of cause and effect continues, is called समाधि through लय (dissolution).

4.961. For, in that state,ignorance and its effects do not become dissipated.

4.962. It is because there is an absense of knowledge arising from the meaning of the great Upanishadic saying तत् त्वं असि (That Thou Art).

4.963. Even though there is such a deliberation, still, on account of the persistence of the cause the entire cosmos appears again.

4.964. Therefore this samaadhi packed with latency (सबीज ) as in the case of deep sleep is not the principal one.

4.965. The principal samaadhi, however, is the one achieved through sublation (बाध) which is seedless (निर्बीज).

4.966. This is because when ignorance is eliminated as a result of the realization of the idea तत् त्वं असि (That Thou Art) the effects of that ignorance also get eliminated in accordance with the order of creation.

4.967. In creation, the effect comes out of its cause. Hence when the cause, ignorance, is eliminated, its effect also gets eliminated.

4.968. And because as a result of the absence of re-emergence of the beginningless ignorance, there is an absence of the re-emergence of its effects also.

4.969. That निर्बीज समाधि itself is being presented in this verse of the Bhagavat Geetha.

4.970. Thus, अपरे others; जुह्वति offer ie. merge; सर्वाणी all–both in their gross form and in their form as tendencies;

4.971. इन्द्रियकर्माणि the activities of the organs–the activities (कर्माणि) viz. hearing of sound, feeling of touch, seeing of colors, experience of taste, perception of smell and speaking, grasping, walking, excreting, enjoying as also thinking and deciding, of the organs (इन्द्रियाणि), of the external organs of the five called, ear, skin, eye, tongue and nose and the five called speech, hands, feet, anus, and the generative organ, and also the two internal organs, namely the mind and the intellect;

4.972. Similarly प्राणकर्माणि the activities of the vital forces known as praaNa–the activities (कर्माणि) viz. leading out (प्राण ), leading downwards (अपान), contracting and spreading (व्यान), digestion of what is eaten and drunk (समान) and leading upwards (उदान ).

4.973. By this is presented the subtle body made of the 17 constituents, viz. the 5 sense-organs, 5 motor-organs, 5 vital forces, mind and intellect.

4.974. The adjective सर्वाणी all is used with the intention of indicating that, by this subtle body is here meant the aggregate of the subtle elements, called Hiranyagarbha.

4.975. They offer, आत्म संयम योग अग्नौ, into the fire of the yoga in the form of संयम on the Self.

4.976. आत्मसंयम means the samyama in the form of dhaaraNa, dhyaana, Samprajnata samaadhi (the samaadhi through full-restraint);

4.977. व्युत्थाननिरोधसंस्कारयोरभिभवप्रादुर्भावौ निरोधक्षणचित्तान्वयो निरोधपरिणामः॥९॥

4.978. “By the suppression of the vyuttaana-impressions (of the mind), and by the rise of the impressions of control (nirodha), the mind which persists in that moment of control (nirodha) is said to attain the controlling-modifications. (Patanjali Yoga Sutra 3.9)

4.979. व्युत्थान signifies the three states called क्षिप्त (scattered), मूढ (stupified) and विक्षिप्त (restless).

4.980. The impressions of these states are antagonistic to samaadhi.

4.981. They become suppressed by the daily and incessant effort of the yogi.

4.982. And there emerges the impressions (संस्कार) of control (निरोध ) which are opposed to the impressions of व्युत्थान.

4.983. And as a result, the persistence of the mind in the moment of nirodha alone is the nirodha-modification or controlling modification of the mind.

4.984. तस्य प्रशान्तवाहिता संस्कारात्॥१०॥

4.985. Patanjali states the consequence of this in Sutra 3.10: “From that it comes to have a steady flow on account of samskaaras of nirodha control.”

4.986. The steady mind is that which takes the form of pure satva on becoming free from mental-inactivity (laya) and vikshepa (restlessness) as a result of elimination of rajas and tamas.

4.987. ‘Steady flow’ is the predominance of the samskaaras of steadiness due to perfection in acquiring its earlier successive samskaaras.

4.988. The cause of this is also stated by Patanjali in his Sutra 1.18. विरामप्रत्ययाभ्यासपूर्वः संस्कारशेषोऽन्यः॥१८॥

4.989. (असंप्राज्ञ्यातसमाधि is the) other (type of समाधि ) (अन्य:) that is preceded (पूर्व:) by the practice (अभ्यास) of stopping (विराम ) the mental fluctuations (प्रत्यय ) (which is the natural fruit of the highest Vairāgya or Renunciation, but that) it (still) contains a residue (शेष:) of latent impressions (संस्कार)||18||

4.990. विराम means cessation of mental modifications.

4.991. Its pratyaya (cause) is the effort of the person (purusha) for the cessation of the modifications.

4.992. Its practice (abhyaasa) means undertaking it repeatedly.

4.993. The other (anyah) which is different from samprajnaata ie. asamprajnaata, comes from, originates from, that.

4.994.That which is the yoga of this kind, in the form of samyama on the Self, is itself the fire.

4.995. In that, ज्ञानदीपिते, which has been lighted by the Knowledge–ज्ञान (Knowledge) is the realization of the identity of Brahman and the Self, arisng from the Vedantic sayings;

4.996. lighted, made very blazing, by that Knowledge through the destruction of ignorance and its effects,

4.997. in the samaadhi achieved through बाध (sublation) (others offer, ie. merge) the subtle cosmic body.

4.998. By the use here of the qualifications ‘all’, ‘Self’, and ‘lighted by Knowledge’ and the use of ‘fire’ in singular number, the distinction from the previous verse has been indicated.

4.999. Hence there is no repetition.

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4.900. From now on we are getting into some intricacies on yoga and I entreat you to be attentive.

4.901.
श्रोत्रादीनीन्द्रियाण्यन्ये संयमाग्निषु जुह्वति ।
शब्दादीन्विषयानन्य इन्द्रियाग्निषु जुह्वति ॥ २६ ॥ (4.26)

4.902. Others sacrifice the senses, hearing etc. in the fire of restraints; yet others sacrifice objects like sound in the fires of the senses.

4.903. अन्ये others, engaged in restraining the organs; (offer) श्रोत्रादीनी इन्द्रियाणि the sense-organs viz. those of hearing etc.

4.904. संयमा अग्निषु in the fire of self-control, by withdrawing those sense-organs from their sense-objects.

4.905. By the word संयमा are meant the three–धारणा (concentration), ध्यान (meditation) and समाधि (absorption) aimed at the same goal.

4.906. धारणा consists in fixing the mind for a long time in the lotus of the heart;

4.907. compare: हृस्थले मनः स्वस्थता क्रिया | भक्तियोगबोधास्चा निस्चितम || (Upadesa Saaram by Bhagavan Sri Ramana Maharshi);

4.908. Of the mind held in one place ध्यान consists in current of mental modification in the form of the Lord interrupted now and then by ideas of other forms;

4.909. समाधि consists in a flow of ideas of the same kind, absolutely uninterrupted by other kinds of ideas.

4.910. समाधि is of two kinds: samprajnata and asamprajnata;

4.911. Samprajnata refers to Savikalpa Samadhi, or divine union in which there remains a distinction between the knower and the known;

4.912. Asamprajnata is the Nirvikalpa Samadhi where complete union is achieved where no distinction could be seen.

4.913. The mind has five stages viz. क्षिप्त (scattered), मूढ (stupified), विक्षिप्त (restless), एकाग्र (one-pointed)and निरुद्ध (restrained).

4.914. In क्षिप्त the mind becomes engrossed in objects under the influence of likes and dislikes;

4.915. In मूढ the mind is overcome by drowsiness etc.;

4.916. In विक्षिप्त as distinguished from क्षिप्त even though the mind is engrossed in objects gets occassionally engaged in ध्यान.

4.917. Of these there is no question of samaadhi in case of क्षिप्त and मूढ minds.

4.918. The casual समाधि may come to विक्षिप्त mind, however it is not conducive to Yoga on account of predominance of restlessness.

4.919. Even the casual samadhi dies away of itself like a lamp distrubed by strong wind.

4.920. However in the state of ekaagra the mind is capable of maintaining a continuous flow of modification with regard to a single object;

4.921. As a result of increase of sattva it has a modification in the form of the Self on account of the absence of slackness and drowsiness etc.

4.922. The slackness and drowsiness is caused by tamas and tamas which is the opposite of sattva vanishes in face of sattva.

4.923. And that modification in the state of ekaagra is concerned with one object only, because of the absence of vikshepa.

4.924. Vikshepa is the form of restlessness which arises from the quality of rajas. Pure sattva completely overcomes rajas also.

4.925. The samaadhi called samprajnata occurs in this level of the mind. Here the modification of the object such as Easwara continues.

4.926. When that also is restrained the mind reaches the reaches the plane of Asamprajnata samaadhi

4.927. So it has been said in Patanjali Yoga Sutra(1.51) “Even when that is restrained there follows Nirbhija Samaadhi on account of restraint of all modifications.”

4.928. This itself becomes a firmly established state for the yogi who is dispassionate towards everything.

4.929. In this condition where he is even indifferent to the joy which is the fruit of samaadhi he is called “Dharmamegha” (Cloud of Virtue).

4.930. He who arrives at this perfect discriminating knowledge gives up all fruits, is the Dharmamegha to whom all pain and work ceases.

4.931. The plural number अग्निषु is because of differences of संयमा in various ways.

4.932. In those fires they offer the sense-organs, ie. they withdraw all sense-organs from their respective sense-objects.

4.933. This withdrawing they do with a view to attaining धारणा (concentration), ध्यान (meditation) and समाधि (absorption).

4.934. Accordingly Patanjali calls it प्रत्याहार the withdrawing of the sense-organs from the sense-ojects as it were. (2.54)

4.935. When the organs are withdrawn, then they take the form of the mind.

4.936. As a result there is an absense of विक्षेप (restlessness) and the mind attains धारणा (concentration). This is the meaning.

4.937. Thus in this half of (the sloka) are stated the four limbs of Yoga viz. प्रत्याहार, धारणा, ध्यान and समाधि.

4.938. Thus the elimination of the functions of all the sense-organs in the state of samaadhi has been spoken of as a sacrifice.

4.939. The enjoyment of objects without attachment or aversion is stated to occur in the state of व्युत्थान (emergence from Samadhi) and is considered a sacrifice.

4.940. अन्ये others, who are in the state of व्युत्थान, जुह्वति offer शब्दादीन् विषयान the objects, sound etc. इन्द्रियाग्निषु in the fire of the sense-organs.

4.941. Without attachment they perceive,like others, unprohibited objects with the organs of hearing etc. That itself is the pouring of oblation.

4.942. Thus then, after having mentioned the two sacrifices, namely, the samaadhi attained through the process of ‘laya’ ie. dissolution and ‘vyutthaana’ the waking up from samaadhi, from the point of view of Patanjali, He, Krishna now speaks of the other kind of sacrifice in the form of samaadhi which, according to the point of view of those who hold on to Brahman, follow from बाध (negation) and which is devoid of व्युत्थान (emergence from Samadhi) on account of destruction of the cause that is ignorance and which is the culmination of all yogas.

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4.864.
ब्रह्मार्पणं ब्रह्म हविर्ब्रह्माग्नौ ब्रह्मणा हुतम् ।
ब्रह्मैव तेन गन्तव्यं ब्रह्मकर्मसमाधिना ॥ २४ ॥ (4.24)

4.865. The ladle is Brahman; the act of offering the oblation–which is Brahman–in the fire, which is Brahman by Brahman is Brahman indeed. 1/2

4.866. This sacrificer, who concentrates on the act that is Brahman, reaches Brahman alone. 2/2

4.867. This laudation takes the form of identifying auxiliaries, well known in the context of sacrificial rites.

4.868. Sacrifice verily consists in parting with the ownership of things for the sake of some god.

4.869. That itself is said to be an oblation when things parted with is dropped into the fire (अग्नि ). There the deity is the dative recipient.

4.870. The thing that is offered as oblation हविस् is the direct object (कर्म ) of the act (क्रिया ) meant by the verbal root.

4.871. Its remote result such as the heaven is the object of creative urge (भावन ).

4.872. The laddle is the instrument (करण ) as also the manthra (मन्त्र ) as the revealers of the actions to be undertaken.

4.873. Parting with the thing and dropping into the fire is क्रिया. The principal agent on whose behalf it is done is kartha (कर्ता ).

4.874. The priest employed is adhvaryu (अध्वर्यु). The location into which the thing is dropped is the fire – adhikaraNa (अधिकरण ).

4.875. The place, time etc are thus considered अधिकरण common to all.

4.876. All dealings involving actions, accessories are imagined as separate instead of as Brahman on account of ignorance of the true knowledge.

4.877. This imagination on account of what was sublated from its being Brahman does not become productive as a result of recurrence.

4.878. So this verse establishes the knowledge of everything as Brahman and eulogises by saying that it comprises the sacrifice as a whole.

4.879. For instance, in the instrumental sense, ‘that through which the offering is made’ arpaNa अर्पण means the ladle etc as also the mantra मन्त्र etc.

4.880. अर्पण indicates the recipient as god, it also means location, place, time etc. Since all these are imagined in Brahman, they are Brahman.

4.881. Since the yajamana, adhvaryu, havis and the fire are deemed Brahman it is indicated by the compound word ब्रह्माग्नौ.

4.882. They are mentioned as Brahman by using the instrumental case ब्रह्मणा in the sense of the Nominative case.

4.883. Similarly हुतम् which means the act of offering, the act of parting, that too is Brahman.

4.884. The words, तेन and एव (as in ब्रह्मैव) are Brahman only.

4.885. तेन by him is गन्तव्यं the goal to be reached in this way and his is the samaadhi समाधि, the insight of Brahman with regard to action known as कर्म-समाधि.

4.886. Accordingly the translation of this verse is: The result, heaven etc. is Brahman; the oblation which is Brahman is poured by Brahman into the fire which is Brahman by one who has the insight of Brahman with regard to action, the Goal to be reached is Brahman alone.

4.887. एवं लोकसङ्ग्रहं चिकीर्षुणापि क्रियमाणं कर्म परमार्थतः अकर्म, ब्रह्मबुद्ध्युपमृदितत्वात् ।

4.888. Thus even the work performed by one seeking the world’s welfare is, metaphysically, no work at all; 1/2

4.889. for the knower of karma has wiped out all his karma. 2/2

4.890.
दैवमेवापरे यज्ञं योगिनः पर्युपासते ।
ब्रह्माग्नावपरे यज्ञं यज्ञेनैवोपजुह्वति ॥ २५ ॥ (2.25)

4.891. Some Yogins offer sacrifices to deities; others sacrifice in the fire of Brahman by means of the sacrifice itself.

4.892. दैवम् meant for gods is that the sacrifice through which देवा: the gods Indra, Agni etc are adored.

4.893. अपरे others, योगिनः the ritualists; पर्युपासते – परि always उपासते undertake एव that very यज्ञं sacrifice in the form of Darsa, Purnamaasa, Jyotishtoma etc.

4.894. Darsa is a sacrifice during the new moon days; Purnamaasa is a sacrifice done on full moon day and Jyotishtoma, a Soma sacrifice, a whole class of sacrificial ceremonies.

4.895. Thus having spoken of the sacrifice in the form of rites Krishna speaks of the sacrifice in the form of Knowledge.

4.896. This sacrifice in the form of Knowledge is the result through purification of the mind.

4.897. ब्रह्माग्नौ in the fire of Brahman who is of the nature of Truth-Knowledge-Infinite Bliss, free from all distinctions (तत् in तत्त्वमसि )

4.898. In that fire (अग्नौ); अपरे others who are different, who are steadfast in the knowledge of Reality; उपजुह्वति offer (indicating त्वं in तत्त्वमसि)

4.899. as identical with Brahman (तत्); यज्ञं the Self, the inmost Self (identical with त्वं); यज्ञेन एव as the Self Itself.

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4.830.

निराशीर्यतचित्तात्मा त्यक्तसर्वपरिग्रहः ।

शारीरं केवलं कर्म कुर्वन्नाप्नोति किल्बिषम् ॥ २१ ॥ (4.21)

4.831. Free from the expectations, controlling the mind and the self, renouncing all possessions, one who does but an exclusive form of bodily work incurs no sin.

4.832. निराशि: One who is without craving, यत चित्त आत्मा one who has चित्त mind, the internal organ and आत्मा the body together with the outer organs

4.833. यत under control, firmly curbed, who because of his self-control is free from cravings and hence त्यक्त सर्व परिग्रहः totally without possessions,

4.834. that is one who has renounced all accessories of enjoyment, a person of this kind too, कुर्वान् by undertaking, because of प्रारब्ध कर्म ;

4.835. कर्म  actions that are performed through the body, speech and mind; शारीरं the body, for the mere maintainance of body accepting clothes and food as alms

4.836. केवलं without the idea of agentship because he has realized the Self which in reality is a non-agent

4.837. न आप्नोति does not incur;  किल्बिषम् sin viz. the undesireable transmigration which is the result of righteousness and unrighteousness.

4.838. यतचित्तात्मा चित्तम् अन्तःकरणम् आत्मा बाह्यः कार्यकरणसङ्घातः

4.839. The ‘mind’ is the inner sense. Here ‘self’ means the exernal psycho-physical organism as a whole.

4.840.

यदृच्छालाभसन्तुष्टो द्वन्द्वातीतो विमत्सरः ।

समः सिद्धावसिद्धौच कृत्वापि न निबध्यते ॥ २२ ॥ (4.22)

4.841. One who is satisfied with what comes unasked for, who has transcended the dualities, who is free from envy and is equi-poised under success and failure (he) is not bound even by performing actions.

4.842. यदृच्छा is the absence of (any) effort that does not conform to the scriptures; acquisition (लाभ ) through that alone.

4.843. So the food and clothing that are approved by the scriptures is यदृच्छालाभ .

4.844. One who is satisfied is सन्तुष्ट: So one who is satisfied with the food and clothing that scriptures approve is यदृच्छालाभ सन्तुष्ट:

4.845. यदृच्छालाभसन्तुष्टः अप्रार्थितोपनतो लाभो यदृच्छालाभः What is gained by ‘chance’ is what comes unsought.

4.846. तेन सन्तुष्टः सञ्जातालंप्रत्ययः ‘Content with that’ means that one feels he has had enough.

4.847. One may accept a pair of loin clothes, a rag for protection from cold and also a pair of sandals but nothing else. (Haritha Smrithi)

4.848. द्वन्द्वातीत: One who has transcended the dualities cold, heat, hunger, thirst, rain etc since in the state of samaadhi they are not manifest.

4.849. विमत्सरः means One who has realized the Supreme Brahman as non-dual so he is free from envy; मत्सरः means desire for one’s own excellence.

4.850. मत्सरः leads to intolerance towards someone’s excellence.

4.851. समः means equipoised, having equanimity

4.852.  सिद्धावसिद्धौच in success and failure, when he succeeds he does not get elated nor is he depressed when it fails.

4.853. He is therefore a non-agent according to his own realization but agentship is ascribed to him by others.

4.854. न निबध्यते does not become bound कृत्वा अपि even by performing actions such as going around begging.

4.855.

गतसङ्गस्य मुक्तस्य ज्ञानावस्थितचेतसः ।

यज्ञायाचरतः कर्म समग्रं प्रविलीयते ॥ २३ ॥ (4.23)

4.856. To whom attachment has vanished, who has been liberated, whose mind has been established in knowledge and who works as a sacrifice, all his work are dissolved (that is it can’t bind).

4.857. गतसङ्गस्य one who has got rid of attachment, who is free from craving for results;

4.858. मुक्तस्य of the one who is liberated, who is devoid of the superimposition of agentship, enjoyership etc (कर्तृत्वं भोग्त्रुत्वं )

4.859. ज्ञान अवस्थित चेतसः of the one whose mind is fixed in knowledge, ie. of the man of steady wisdom whose mind is established in the Self.

4.860. From where is his freedom from attachment? From the absence of superimposition. What is that? From his being a man of steady wisdom.

4.861. Even in the case of a person of this kind, कर्म ie. actions consisting of sacrifices, charity etc.  आचरतः performed under the compulsions of praarabdha karma

4.862. यज्ञाय means for Vishnu, for pleasing Him.

4.863. प्रविलीयते Get destroyed completely; समग्रं  together with the result(‘sam’ means that which exists along with & ‘agra’ means what follows as a result)

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4.792.
यस्य सर्वे समारम्भाः कामसङ्कल्पवर्जिताः ।
ज्ञानाग्निदग्धकर्माणं तमाहुः पण्डितं बुधाः ॥ १९ ॥ (4.19)

4.793. Him whose actions are devoid of desires and resolves and who has his actions burnt away by the fire of wisdom, the wise call him learned.

4.794. यस्य the realizer of the highest truth, whose; सर्वे all that are Vedic as well as mundane; समारम्भाः those that are commenced;

4.795. कामसङ्कल्पवर्जिताः devoid of desire and resove, काम desire means hankering for results, सङ्कल्प resolve as it comes from the idea of agentship, ‘I do’;

4.796. Devoid of this कामसङ्कल्प but performings actions for लोकसंग्रह् for the good of the world or for mere maintenance of the body; तम् him;

4.797. ज्ञानाग्निदग्धकर्माणं who has his actions burnt away by the fire of wisdom – which wisdom consists in seeing inaction in action;

4.798. that action itself is the ‘fire’ in which he whose actions characterised as good and bad are burnt.

4.799. He is thus declared बुधाः th wise, the knower of Brahman आहू: call पण्डितं learned.

4.800. So all his undertakings has the perception set forth in the previous stanza.

4.801. So he is free from desires and imaginations prompted by them.

4.802. His actions are done without egoistic moties, being mere motions.

4.803. प्रवृत्तेन चेत् लोकसङ्ग्रहार्थम्, निवृत्तेन चेत् जीवनमात्रार्थम् । As activist his work promotes world’s welfare. As quietist his work keep him alive.

4.804. यस्तु अकर्मादिदर्शी, सः अकर्मादिदर्शनादेव निष्कर्मा He who habitually perceived non-work in work, for that very reason beyond all works.

4.805. संन्यासी जीवनमात्रार्थचेष्टः He is a sanyasi, a renouncer and his stirrings are meant just to maintain life in the body.

4.806. सन् कर्मणि न प्रवर्तते, यद्यपि प्राक् विवेकतः प्रवृत्तः । He does not work though, and before the dawn of discrimination he was an activist.

4.807. यस्य प्रारब्धकर्मा सन् उत्तरकालमुत्पन्नात्मसम्यग्दर्शनः स्यात्, सः सर्वकर्मणि प्रयोजनमपश्यन् ससाधनं कर्म परित्यजत्येव ।

4.808. But he whose operative works have begun to bear fruits and then he later achieves the right perception of the Self; 1/2

4.809. Of course, when that be so, he renounces work with all the auxiliaries because he sees no profit in work.2/2

4.810. सः कुतश्चित् निमित्तात् कर्मपरित्यागासम्भवे सति कर्मणि तत्फले च सङ्गरहिततया

4.811. If for some reason or other, works have not been wholly renounced by such a sage, due to his detachment from works
and their fruits, 1/n

4.812. स्वप्रयोजनाभावात् लोकसङ्ग्रहार्थं पूर्ववत् कर्मणि प्रवृत्तोऽपि नैव किञ्चित् करोति, 2/n

4.813. his persistent performance of works is for world’s welfare. (Dr. Subramanian Swamy comes under this category!). 3/n

4.814. He has no private end to serve. In fact, he works not at all.4/n

4.815. ज्ञानाग्निदग्धकर्मत्वात् तदीयं कर्म अकर्मैव सम्पद्यते इत्येतमर्थं 5/n

4.816. All his works have been burnt up in the fire of knowledge and so his work has become non-work. n/n

4.817.
त्यक्त्वा कर्मफलासङ्गं नित्यतृप्तो निराश्रयः ।
कर्मण्यभिप्रवृत्तोऽपि नैव किञ्चित्करोति सः ॥ २० ॥ (4.20)

4.818. Giving up attachment to the fruits of works, eternally content, independent, the one engaged in works, does nothing at all.

4.819. त्यक्त्वा having given up through the complete realization of the Self,

4.820. कर्मफलासङ्गं (कर्म फल आसङ्गं) attachment, ie. the idea of agentship and the desire for enjoyment with regard to actions and their results,

4.821. नित्यतृप्त: ever contented through his realization that he is of the nature of true Bliss,

4.822. निराश्रयः – आश्रय the abode, such as body etc as support has been removed by the realization of non-duality such that he lost identity with body.

4.823. आश्रयो नाम यत् आश्रित्य पुरुषार्थं सिसाधयिषति, दृष्टादृष्टेष्टफलसाधनाश्रयरहित इत्यर्थः

4.824. Dependence refers to external means, relying on which, goals are sought to be reached. 1/2

4.825. The sense is that he has no reliance on means to ends, that are seen and unseen. 2/2

4.826. (कर्म फल आसङ्गं and निराश्रयं are mentioned as the reasons with regard to the cessation of the desire for results and the idea of agentship.

4.827. अपि even though one who has reached such state as jivanmukta is अभिप्रवृत्ता : engaged; कर्मणि in actions – Vedic or mundane;

4.828. in th state of emergence from spiritual absorption as samaadhi even though owing to praarabdha karmas he appears to be engaged in work.

4.829. नैव किञ्चित्करोति सः But from his own standpoint he does not really do anything.

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4.770b. We continue our discussion on Verse 4.18
कर्मण्यकर्म यः पश्येदकर्मणि च कर्म यः ।
स बुद्धिमान्मनुष्येषु स युक्तः कृत्स्नकर्मकृत् ॥ १८ ॥ (4.18)

4.771. All karmas bind. This happens by the fruits of karmas following us.

4.772. Sri Krishna says that performing नित्य कर्म considering them as अकर्म dont bind us.

4.773. But considering नित्य कर्म as कर्म and not performing them thinking you are avoiding the fruits of them is false-knowledge.

4.774. A knowledge of this kind is not truth-worthy to be known. Such false knowledge dont earn you praise as ‘wise’.

4.775. Performing नित्य कर्म is indeed useful, by its very nature, as purification of the mind.

4.776. कर्मणि, क्रियते इति कर्म व्यापारमात्रम् All actions done is work.कर्तृत्वम् is attached to the one who considers himself as the doer.

4.777. तस्मिन् कर्मणि अकर्म कर्माभावं यः पश्येत्, any action or cessation of action depends on the agent (ahamkara).

4.778. All reference to action, its accessories and so forth take place on the plane of अविद्या or nescience before Reality is attained.

4.779. A man who has known कर्म as the visible universe, which conists of Maya but not real and that 1/2

4.780. कर्तृत्वम् ie doership comes from अविद्याभूमौ एव in the plane of nescience or ignorance is a wise man.

4.781. He also sees अकर्म the very Self that works not in all works is integrated. He is a Yogi.

4.782. Objection: What is the sense of this self-contradictory proposition of non-work in work and vice-versa? 1/2

4.783. (objection) Work, of course, cant be non-work, nor non-work can be work. How can one see contradictory states? 2/2

4.784. Answer: What in truth is a non-work appears to a deluded man as work (as the tree moving in opposite direction).

4.785. Similarly work appears as non-work (keeping quiet is work too!; Moving man at a distance appearing to be still.)

4.786. So non self-contradiction is entailed in the statement. Also disproves the idea work is work for all alike.

4.787. देहाद्याश्रयं कर्म आत्मन्यध्यारोप्य ‘अहं कर्ता, मम एतत् कर्म, मया अस्य कर्मणः फलं भोक्तव्यम्’ इति च

4.788. The plain man superimposes on the Self the work of psycho-physical organism and maintains, “I am the agent, this work is mine, its fruits belongs to me.”

4.789. तथा ‘अहं तूष्णीं भवामि, येन अहं निरायासः अकर्मा सुखी स्याम्’ इति

4.790. Similarly he superimposes on the Self the cessation from work of the same organism and the resultant satisfaction and holds: “I do nothing, I rest comfortably.”

4.791. In order to correct the contrary perceptions of the plain man that Krishna “Whoso beholds non-work in work..etc.”

4.791a. This concludes the exhaustive explanation to the verse 4.18!

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4.750. We are taking up another explanation of the verse now.

4.751. यः = he who; पश्येत् = finds, from the point of view of the highest truth;
अकर्म = that which is not an object of knowledge, which is self-effulgent consciousness, which is the locus of all errors; 1/2

4.752. as existing through and through in Its nature as Existence and Self-effulgence, 2/2

4.753. कर्मणि =in the object of knowledge, in the insentient visible universe.

4.754. And similarly he who finds कर्म (an object of knowledge) the visible universe, which conists of Maya but not real ultimately;

4.755. as imagined , on the self-effulgent Reality, the Witness because there is no possibility of any relation betw the seer & seen.

4.756. The Sruti therefore says: यस्तु सर्वाणि भूतानि आत्मन्येवानुपश्यति । सर्वभूतेषु चात्मानं ततो न विजुगुप्सते ॥ ६ ॥ (Is.U 6)

4.757. He who sees all beings in the very Self, and the Self in all beings, feels no hatred by that (realisation).

4.758. Thus, though there is mutual superimposition still स: he who finds the pure entity is alone बुद्धिमान् wise मनुष्येषु among men;

4.759. not anyone else, because he sees the highest Truth whereas the others does not.

4.760. He is युक्तः engaged in yoga, which is a means to wisdom, he is one-pointed in mind as a result of purification of mind.

4.761. He alone is praised by saying he is कृत्स्नकर्मकृत्, a performer of all actions which are the means of purification of the mind.

4.762. Since this is so, therefore you also become a realizer of the Supreme Truth;

4.763. for by knowing That alone is it possible to become a performer of all actions. This is the idea.

4.764. So what was said in, ‘by knowing which you will become free from evil’ and what was meant by saying that there is something to be known about the true nature of action etc., and the praise in ‘he is the wise one’ — all that becomes reconciled in the knowledge of the highest Truth.

4.765. For, it is not possible to be liberated from the evil world by knowing anything else.

4.766. And any other thing that is not real is not worthy of knowing. Nor does sagacity accrues by knowing it.

4.767. Are nithya-karmas bondage? कर्मणि – in action, in the regular duties (नित्य कर्म ) performed for the Supreme Lord,

4.768. यः he who sees this as अकर्म not an action because it is not a cause of bondage.

4.769. So seeing नित्य कर्म as अकर्म frees him from bondage.

4.770. And similarly non-performance of नित्य कर्म considering them as karma and cause of bondage is held as अकर्मणि inaction causing evil.

4.770a. Let us continue discussion on कर्म and अकर्म in the next session.

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4.725.
कर्मण्यकर्म यः पश्येदकर्मणि च कर्म यः ।
स बुद्धिमान्मनुष्येषु स युक्तः कृत्स्नकर्मकृत् ॥ १८ ॥ (4.18)

4.726. Whoso beholds non-work in work and work in non-work is wise among men; he is integrated; he does all works.

4.727. Let me for a change give word for word meaning for this verse.

4.728. कर्मणि = In action ie. in the functioning of the body, organs etc. both enjoined and prohibited actions that are 1/n

4.729. superimposed on the self by assuming oneself to be the agent — like ascription of the movement to the unmoving tree etc. 2/n

4.730. as you observe while travelling on the train with trees moving in opposite direction; n/n

4.731. यः = he who through deliberations on the real nature of the actionless Self;

4.732. पश्येत् (पश्यति) = finds, in reality, the absence of action, as in the case of trees when you travel on the train outside, similarly;

4.733. अकर्मणि = in inaction, ascribed–under the idea “I am sitting doing nothing”, while the body ceaselessly acts such as breathing, hearing etc. 1/n

4.734. The body is ever active on account of its being product of Maya consisting of triguNas–like motionlessness (ascribed) to 2/n

4.735. people who are in fact moving at a distance within sight, ie. people move at a distance but you see them as not moving; n/n

4.736. यः = he who as a result of deliberation on the real nature of the body, organs etc. as ever active; 1/n

4.737. finds, in reality, karma, in the form of an effort called ‘cessation from work’ just like the motion of the person at a distance.2/n

4.738. That is the deliberation sees the motion while the eye sees no motion in the person at a distance. 3/n

4.739. Therefore the idea, ‘I am remaining indifferent’ even in the state of indifference, is verily an action! n/n

4.740. One who has this kind of supreme realization is praised in ‘he is the wise one’ etc with the triguNas being possessed of wisdom,1/2

4.741. remaining engaged in yoga, and being a performer of all actions. 2/2

4.742. In the 1st quarter of the verse is shown the reality about enjoined action and prohibited action, because the word karma,1/2

4.743. ie. action, stands for both these enjoined action and prohibited action, and by 2nd quarter is shown the reality about inaction.2/2

4.744. When I say and you understand that action is a source of bondage, you could immediately conclude I should remain quiet but it is false.

4.745. For, actions, enjoined or prohibited, is not a source of bondage in the absence of agentship. Being an agent is the problem.

4.746. That is the reason Krishna says: न मां कर्माणि लिम्पन्ति “Actions do not taint Me..” in (4.14).

4.747. When there is the idea of agentship even the egoistic idea “I remain quiet” is surely a source of bondage.

4.748. Why so? It is because the true nature of Reality remains unknown. So know this first is the idea.

4.749. This enables you to give up the agentship and perform actions that truly dont taint you. This is the advice of Bhagavan.

4.749a. Let us continue the discussion in the next session.

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4.709.
न मां कर्माणि लिम्पन्ति न मे कर्मफले स्पृहा ।
इति मां योऽभिजानाति कर्मभिर्न स बध्यते ॥ १४ ॥ (4.14)

4.710. Actions do not taint me. For me there is no hankering for the results of actions. One who knows me thus is never bound by actions.

4.711. To whom does the works taint? For the one who has the sense of ‘I’ and ‘me’. This is ego.

4.712. न मां तानि कर्माणि लिम्पन्ति देहाद्यारम्भकत्वेन, अहङ्काराभावात् । The actions do not taint me by originating a body because I am not egoistic.

4.713. What desire can there be for one who is Self-fulfilled? asks Aagama Upanishad. Verifly I have no taint through craving for results.

4.714.
एवं ज्ञात्वा कृतं कर्म पूर्वैरपि मुमुक्षुभिः ।
कुरु कर्मैव तस्मात्त्वं पूर्वैः पूर्वतरं कृतम् ॥ १५ ॥ (4.15)

4.715. Knowing thus was work done by ancient seekers after liberation. Therefore you too do only work as was done by those ancients.

4.716. Objection: If work is to be done, I shall do at your bidding. Why recommend it in the words “done by the ancients of bygone days”?

4.717.
किं कर्म किमकर्मेति कवयोऽप्यत्र मोहिताः ।
तत्ते कर्म प्रवक्ष्यामि यज्ज्ञात्वा मोक्ष्यसेऽशुभात् ॥ १६ ॥ (4.16)

4.718. What is work? What is non-work? In respect of these questions even the sages are deluded. 1/2

4.719. Therefore I shall explain the nature of work, by knowing it you will be delivered of evil. 2/2

4.720.
कर्मणो ह्यपि बोद्धव्यं बोद्धव्यं च विकर्मणः ।
अकर्मणश्च बोद्धव्यं गहना कर्मणो गतिः ॥ १७ ॥ (4.17)

4.721. For there is something to be known even about actions, and something to be known about prohibited action; and someting has to be known about inaction. The course of action is profound.

4.722.
कर्मण्यकर्म यः पश्येदकर्मणि च कर्म यः ।
स बुद्धिमान्मनुष्येषु स युक्तः कृत्स्नकर्मकृत् ॥ १८ ॥ (4.18)

4.723. Whoso beholds non-work in work and work in non-work is wise among men; he is integrated; he does all works.

4.724. This is a very important verse and needs to be explained at length. I will therefore take it up in the next session.

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4.664a. Certain unique features of Varna Dharma is worth mentioning here as we wind up this subject & to continue on ज्ञानकर्मसंन्यसयोग:

4.665. Despite being branded as Brahminical ‘religion’ by the secularists and despite their importance in the social order the Brahmins neither can nor would be able to usurp power in our Dharma.

4.666. There is perhaps a social hierarchy though not technically as all varnas exist side by side inevitably and therefore to be considered equal.

4.667. What is certainly not there is a political hierarchy as was seen in a theocratic Tibet.

4.668. In our Dharma there is no such a thing as a fight between the ‘church’ and the state as the spiritual side of the people has no organization per se in a Hindu Dhaarmic setup.

4.669. Importance of religion itself as being a ‘state religion’ to put down ‘infidels’ is absent in the Hindu state.

4.670. True men of spirit known as Sanyasis have a total abandonment to anything that involves mamakaram and are bound by the dictum to wander to prevent them from possession of anything of material value.

4.671. Neither is the king a religious head as had happened in Europe. This is the most laudable part of the ethics of Hindu Dharma.

4.672. Even Ashoka’s edicts were recommendatory and he did not found a state religion of Buddhism in a Hindu country.

4.673. The king was always a guardian, servant and executor of Dharma so much so his decrees were merely of an administrative nature that are not contradictory to social, religious, political and economic interest of the community.

4.674. In this process the Brahmins played the role of social conscience.

4.675. If a king could run amok then Manu had allowed a provision for regicide of oppressive and unjust kings.

4.676. Banishment and degradation even imprisonment of kings were easily exercised when they became tyrannical.

4.677. On the other hand the Brahmins themselves cannot change Dharma.

4.678. They are guided by Suthras or values set out by a body of rishis that happens once over a long period of time to be clear of being whimsical.

4.679. Any change to the Suthras would have to be set out by a new body of Rishis who by themselves do not belong to any of the four varnas.

4.680. These Rishis are Sanyasins of the the fourth aashrama who have abandoned varna dharma and who were competently initiated by a Guru of the same fourth aashrama.

4.681. Another important point that we have to squarely deal with is the wanton misrepresentation of the word Varna with caste.

4.682. VARNA IS NOT CASTE. Varna and caste are opposites!

4.683. I want to quote here the sagacious words of Premendra Priyadarshi on this question of Varna and caste.

4.684. “Many people think that varna and caste are related, and castes emerged from varnas. But infact, as scholars of eminence have pointed out, the two systems are completely unrelated.

4.685. “Varna is neither hereditary nor endogamous, while caste essentially is both.

4.686. “Any class system, whether based on wealth, colour, race, profession, language or country of origin cannot constitute caste system if it is not endogamous and hereditary.

4.687. “Scholars have condemned the practice of translating varna as ‘caste’.

4.688. Basham wrote, “The term varna does not mean ‘caste’ and has never meant ‘caste’ by which term it is often loosely translated.

4.689. M.N. Srinivas, while discussing caste, wrote, “The varna model has produced a wrong and distorted image of caste.

4.690. “It is necessary for the sociologist to free himself from the hold of the varna model if he wishes to understand the caste system.

4.691. “It is hardly necessary to add that it is more difficult for Indian sociologist than it is for non-Indian.”

4.692. Max Waber, noted, “Perhaps the most important gap in the ancient Veda is its lack of any reference to caste…. nowhere does it refer to the substantive content of the caste order in the meaning which it later assumed and which is characteristic only of Hinduism.”(Weber: ).
Exogamy not endogamy was the preferred system of the idea of gothra of varna.
Al-Biruni writes, “According to their marriage law it is better to marry a stranger than a relative.
The more distant the relationship of a woman with regard to her husband, the better.” (Sachau: ).
We have castes in India and we know for sure they are not originated in the Veda.
So a proper understanding of the genesis of caste is important to counter the secularist propaganda that castes are the product of Hindu Dharma.

4.693. Castes started to come into vogue only after the Islamic invasion. (Max Weber)

4.694. And its startling proliferation took place during 18th and 19th century. (Max Weber)

4.695. I will deal with this in greater detail later as it is necessary now to stick to the topic of Varna and the social organization based on it. How is the dhaarmic society organized?

4.696. Sri S.Gurumurthy in his famous essay “The inclusive and the exclusive” has dealt with this subject in layman’s term.

4.697. He rightly opines that in western countries the society is subordinated to the state whereas in Dhaarmic set up the state is only a residual institution to the society.

4.698. I will go into greater details later but let us now adhere to the sine qua non of the Dhaarmic Society.

4.699. The driving force of a Dhaarmic society lies in the true and complete freedom of the individual and it lies in his unhindered right to pursue his goal that rightly needs him to conform to his swadharma for such a discipline alone guarantees his own right to pursue his ambitions unmolested by which no transgression by anyone is possible for fear of being dealt with very serverely by the king as the weilder of the weapon. Also that such discipline alone guarantees the possibility of his goal coming to fruition without getting frittered or diluted.

4.700. In pursuit of this objective of true freedom for the individual and his unhindered pursuit of his own goal that he sets for himself through his own swadharma the important criterion is the ensuring of a political power that is not concentrated in any one individual or a group.

4.701. That is why the prohibition that a person belonging to one Varna would not acquire the powers belonging to another Varna.

4.702. So a Brahmin who is the repository of knowledge is not allowed to weild weapon, nor acquire wealth or control labour;

4.703. A Kshathriya is not allowed to aggrandize knowledge, or wealth or labour;

4.704. A Vaisya is not allowed to pursue knowledge, acquire weapon or labour to his exclusive disposal.

4.705. And finally Sudhra would not corner knowledge, or weapon or wealth and remain engaged in his own domain.

4.706. Any such acquiring of the powers and faculties of other varnas would lead to corruption and slavery.

4.707. We see that happening today right before our eyes.

4.708. The objective of a society is not merely to keep peace and order but enable it to prosper and for each individual to have access to total pursuit of his fourfold goals of life viz. Dharma, Artha, Kaama and Moksha. Varnasrama Dharma alone can provide this.

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