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इन्द्रियाणि मनो बुद्धिरस्याधिष्ठानमुच्यते ।

एतैर्विमोहयत्येष ज्ञानमावृत्य देहिनम् ॥ ४० ॥ (3.40)

3.443. His abode is said to be th senses,mind and intellect.  By means of these he obscures knowledge and deludes the embodied men. (such being the case)


तस्मात्त्वमिन्द्रियाण्यादौ नियम्य भरतर्षभ ।

पाप्मानं प्रजहिह्येनं ज्ञानविज्ञाननाशनम् ॥ ४१ ॥ (3.41)

3.445. Therefore O Scion of Bharata dynasty, after first controlling the organs, you renounce this one which is sinful and a destroyer of learning and wisdom.

3.446. Prajahihi is to renounce or Pra jahi hi means kill completely and manifestly.

3.447. ज्ञान means the indirect knowledge arising from the instructions from the sastras and the teachers.

3.448. विज्ञान means the direct knowledge that results from that.

3.449. So ज्ञानविज्ञाननाशनम्  is the destroyer of ज्ञान and विज्ञान which are the cause of attaing the highest good.

3.450. आदौ पूर्वमेव नियम्य वशीकृत्य भरतर्षभ पाप्मानं पापाचारं कामं प्रजहिहि परित्यज एवं प्रकृतं वैरिणं ज्ञानविज्ञाननाशनं ज्ञानं शास्त्रतः आचार्यतश्च आत्मादीनाम् अवबोधः, विज्ञानं विशेषतः तदनुभवः, तयोः ज्ञानविज्ञानयोः श्रेयःप्राप्तिहेत्वोः नाशनं नाशकरं प्रजहिहि आत्मनः परित्यजेत्यर्थः

3.451. Therefore, at the outset, controlling the senses, O mighty prince! give up this wicked craving, this foe, who destroys knowledge won from the sastras and the teacher and also the specific realization thereof.  These two lead to supreme wellbeing. This is the idea.


इन्द्रियाणि पराण्याहुरिन्द्रियेभ्यः परं मनः ।

मनसस्तु परा बुद्धिर्यो बुद्धेः परतस्तु सः ॥ ४२ ॥ (3.42)

3.453. The senses are said to be superior to the body; the mind is superior to senses; intellect is superior to the mind. Atman is superior to all.

3.454. आहु: – they, the learned persons or the srutis say that as compared to the gross, insentient, limited and exteral body इन्द्रियाणि, the five sense organs such as ear etc. are पराणि superior.

3.455. मनः mind that consists of reflection and doubt is परं superior because इन्द्रियेभ्यः impeller of the organs.

3.456. बुद्धि: the intellect which consists of judgement is superior to manas because judgement is certitude as opposed to the doubts of the mind.

3.457. परतस्तु सः This One viz. the Atman is superior to buddhi because it illumines the buddhi without such illumination buddhi cannot function.

3.458. Kathopanishad interjects the अव्यक्त the unmanifest between the (cosmic) intellect known as Mahat and the Purusha the Atman.


एवं बुद्धेः परं बुद्ध्वा संस्तभ्यात्मानमात्मना ।

जहि शत्रुं महाबाहो कामरूपं दुरासदम् ॥ ४३ ॥ (3.43)

3.460. Thus knowing Him as nobler than the intellect, and restraining the inner senses through the Self, O Mighty armed! destroy the enemy–the craving, so hard to reach.

3.461. बुद्ध्वा by realizing एवं परा that which is implied as superior बुद्धेः to the intellect संस्तभ्य completely establishing आत्मानाम्  the mind आत्मना with the help of buddhi which is the nature of certitude जहि शत्रुं  kill the enemy.

End of Chapter 3 – KARMA YOGA

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