इन्द्रियस्येन्द्रियस्यार्थे रागद्वेषौ व्यवस्थितौ ।
तयोर्न वशमागच्छेत्तौ ह्यस्य परिपन्थिनौ ॥ ३४ ॥ (3.34)
Senses have attachment and aversion to thier respective objects; none should be swayed by them. They indeed are obstacles in man’s path.
या हि पुरुषस्य प्रकृतिः सा रागद्वेषपुरःसरैव स्वकार्ये पुरुषं प्रवर्तयति ।
Human nature indeed forces man to work under the urges of his attachment and aversion.
तदा स्वधर्मपरित्यागः परधर्मानुष्ठानं च भवति ।
This results in in the abandonment of one’s svadharma and conforming to alien conducts (as is happening under secularism).
यदा पुनः रागद्वेषौ तत्प्रतिपक्षेण नियमयति तदा शास्त्रदृष्टिरेव पुरुषः भवति, न प्रकृतिवशः ।
On the other hand when attachment and aversion are restrained then man’s vision becomes that of Sastra. He ceases to be Nature’s captive.
श्रेयान्स्वधर्मो विगुणः परधर्मात्स्वनुष्ठितात् ।
स्वधर्मे निधनं श्रेयः परधर्मो भयावहः ॥ ३५ ॥ (3.35)
One’s own dharma, though imperfect, is better than the dharma of another well discharged. 1/2
Better death in one’s own dharma because the dharma of another is full of fear. 2/2
What is svadharma? It is the duty that is prescribed for the respective varNa by the Sruti and Smriti.
Para-dharma is not one’s own duty but the one’s prescribed for another.
Jaimini Sutra says: Duty is that which is undertaken for a human goal on the authority of an injunction presenting it.
This is the answer to Arjuna’s pleading to abandon the war and take to begging!
Why abandoning svadharma is wrought with bhayam? Because it brings infamy and entuse other to hound you.
So sticking to one’s own dharma even if defectively performed achieves the highest good.
अथ केन प्रयुक्तोऽयं पापं चरति पूरुषः ।
अनिच्छन्नपि वार्ष्णेय बलादिव नियोजितः ॥ ३६ ॥ (3.36)
But dragged on by what does a man commit sin, unwittingly though, O Varshneya, constrained as it were by force?
Constrained as it were by force is indicative of a an instance where a person does something by the orders of a king that he can’t ignore.
काम एष क्रोध एष रजोगुणसमुद्भवः ।
महाशनो महापाप्मा विद्ध्येनमिह वैरिणम् ॥ ३७ ॥ (3.37)
This desire, this anger, born out of rajo guNa is a voracious devourer and sinner. Know it to be the foe in this context.
Desire itself when obstructed becomes the cause of anger. Thus anger is indeed the desire.
So this desire is the enemy and when it is warded off there occurs the attainment of all the human goals.
How do we ward it off? Bhagavan says it is रजोगुणसमुद्भवः – born of the quality of rajas.
This rajo guna that possesses the nature of sorrow, activity and strength, is the source.
Since the effect follows the cause then desire has to be added to the list of nature of rajo guna
So how does this rajo guna become impeller to the evil path? Bhagavan says: रजोगुणसमुद्भवः that from which springs the quality of rajas.
विद्ध्येनमिह वैरिणम् – So know this desire to be the enemy. In doing so you become eligible.
When eligible person to be independent as regards engagement or disengagement, then two things should be explained:
(a) Why this one proceeds (impelled) along the path of transmigration as a helpless man?;
(b) but why is he not impelled along the path that is characterized by detachment and lead to the total destruction of the evil of transmigration
Since this person has not attained the highest human goal and was beset with infinite evils, the fool ‘desired’ the unachieved human goals through effort.
Similarly, being possessed of desire arising from ignorance, the unenlightened man wants to discard evil existing in himself
How does this ignorance manifest? अकामत: क्रिया: कश्चिद्द्र्ष्यन्ते नेह कस्यचित् – It is not seen in this world that anyone whosoever does some work without desire.
Hence it is not known that the impeller is anything other than desire.
When desire itself in the form of hankering for objects comes into being, it activates rajas and thereby impels a man to sorrowful actions.
महाशन is split into mahat (great) and ashana: (the hunger, the consumer, the devourer) It also indicates mrithyu into whose mouth everything disappears.
This desire is महापाप्मा the great sinner, very ferocious. It cannot be placated through gift, or by conciliation or by dissention.
Because it is well known that a person commits sin under the forcible impulsion though aware of its consequences.
The idea is that it viz. desire must therefore be destroyed.
What are the expedients for overcoming one’s enemy? Saama, dhaana, bhedha and danda are the four expedients.
Saama is conciliation, dhaana is bribery, bheda is sowing dissention among enemies.
When these three dont work the fourth namely danda or punishment becomes expedient surely but not suddenly.
धूमेनाव्रियते वह्निर्यथादर्शो मलेन च ।
यथोल्बेनावृतो गर्भस्तथा तेनेदमावृतम् ॥ ३८ ॥ (3.38)
Just as fire is obscured by smoke, a mirror by dirt and the embryo by the womb, so is knowledge by craving.
Since mind cannot function before the origination of the body, the desire remains in a subtle form.
Once the gross body is visible the desire becomes active in the gross body on account of the deeds that originated the body.
The desire itself becomes grosser, when it is excited again and again in a state when an object is being thought of.
The desire is evidently grossest attaining maximum excitement when the desired object is being enjoyed.
आवृतं ज्ञानमेतेन ज्ञानिनो नित्यवैरिणा ।
कामरूपेण कौन्तेय दुष्पूरेणानलेन च ॥ ३९ ॥ (3.39)
O son of Kunti, the knowledge is covered by this constant enemy of the wise in the form of desire which is like an insatiable fire.
आवृतं ज्ञानमेतेन; ज्ञानम् derivatively meaning ‘that through which something is known’. आवृतं एतेन is covered by desire. Thus desire makes you ignorant.
What is the effect? You have been made sorrowful by desire. So it is the constant enemy of the wise. So it should be destroyed.
So even though the desire has to be destroyed by the wise, in the undiscriminating man it is दुष्पूरेणानलेन च like an unsatiable fire.
The idea of insatiable fire is to emphasize that this desire in an undiscriminating man is not quenched even when the desire is met with.