BHAGAVAT GEETHA – CHAPTER 2 – SAMKHYA YOGA – THE YOGA OF KNOWLEDGE (Part – 8)

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2.345. From verse 55 to the end of the chapter are taught the characteristics of, and the means employed by the sage of stable wisdom.

2.346. The sage of stable wisdom concerns himself with the discipline of knowledge (ज्ञानयोगनिष्ठा).  How does he do it?

2.347. He does so either after renouncing all karmas right from the beginning, or he may have become a sage after practising Karma Yoga.

2.348. सर्वत्रैव हि अध्यात्मशास्त्रे कृतार्थलक्षणानि यानि तान्येव साधनानि उपदिश्यन्ते, यत्नसाध्यत्वात् ।

2.349. For in all the sastras the very characteristics of the perfected sage have been set forth for those who wish to follow this path.

2.350. यानि यत्नसाध्यानि साधनानि लक्षणानि च भवन्ति – Thus, indeed, are these characteristics acquired through direct effort.

2.351.

श्रीभगवानुवाच —

प्रजहाति यदा कामान्सर्वान्पार्थ मनोगतान् ।

आत्मन्येवात्मना तुष्टः स्थितप्रज्ञस्तदोच्यते ॥ ५५ ॥

2.352. Bhagavan said: When one wholly discards desires of the heart and becomes exclusively content with the Self, that One is called a Sage.

2.353. Wholly discards means in an eminent degree, one gives up all desires that fill the heart.

2.354. Objection: When all desires are discarded, satisfaction dries up, still there would remain the need to sustain the body.

2.355. What follows then may well be aimless movements as of a person deranged.

2.356. Answer: So Bhagavan says “(Be) content with the Self.” The idea is contentment should be due to the Self alone, independent of external gain.

2.357. Since he has tasted the immortalizing nectar of supreme knowledge he is indifferent to everything else.

2.358. His wisdom born of discrimination between the Self and non-self has become stabilized. So he has stable wisdom.

2.359.

दुःखेष्वनुद्विग्नमनाः सुखेषु विगतस्पृहः ।

वीतरागभयक्रोधः स्थितधीर्मुनिरुच्यते ॥ ५६ ॥

2.360. The silent sage is said to hav stable wisdom when sufferings no longer perturb his mind; 1/2

2.361. when he ceases to cling to pleasures, and he is rid of attachment, fear and wrath. 2/2

2.362.

यः सर्वत्रानभिस्नेहस्तत्तत्प्राप्य शुभाशुभम् ।

नाभिनन्दति न द्वेष्टि तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ॥ ५७ ॥

2.363. His wisdom is stable who clings to nothing good or evil when they occur to him. He neither seeks nor shuns them.

2.364.

यदा संहरते चायं कूर्मोऽङ्गानीव सर्वशः ।

इन्द्रियाणीन्द्रियार्थेभ्यस्तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ॥ ५८ ॥

2.365. When he wholly withdraws his senses from their objects, just as a tortoise does his limbs from all sides, his wisdom is stable.

2.366.

विषया विनिवर्तन्ते निराहारस्य देहिनः ।

रसवर्जं रसोऽप्यस्य परं दृष्ट्वा निवर्तते ॥ ५९ ॥

2.367. Objects, but not the taste for them, fall off as regards the man who feeds not on them.  1/2

2.368. When he intuits the supreme Reality, even this taste wanes. 2/2

2.369. सोऽपि रसो रञ्जनारूपः सूक्ष्मः अस्य यतेः परं परमार्थतत्त्वं ब्रह्म दृष्ट्वा उपलभ्य ‘अहमेव तत्’ इति वर्तमानस्य निवर्तते निर्बीजं विषयविज्ञानं सम्पद्यते इत्यर्थः ।

2.370. Even the subtle joy which makes objects attractive retreats from the disciplined sage once he realizes the Supreme Reality as “I am verily That”.

2.371. सम्यग्दर्शनलक्षणप्रज्ञास्थैर्यं चिकीर्षता आदौ इन्द्रियाणि स्ववशे स्थापयितव्यानि, यस्मात्तदनवस्थापने दोषमाह —

2.372. One who seeks stability of wisdom, defined as right knowledge, must first control the senses. Otherwise, evil may ensue.

2.373.

यततो ह्यपि कौन्तेय पुरुषस्य विपश्चितः ।

इन्द्रियाणि प्रमाथीनि हरन्ति प्रसभं मनः ॥ ६० ॥

2.374. The excited sesnse, O son of Kunti, impetuously carry away the mind of even a wise man who is striving for perfection.

2.375. The impetuous senses drive him towards the objects and agitate his mind. 1/2

2.376. Even though he has right knowledge, failing to control the senses carry him away to disaster. 2/2

2.377.

तानि सर्वाणि संयम्य युक्त आसीत मत्परः ।

वशे हि यस्येन्द्रियाणि तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ॥ ६१ ॥

2.378. Controlling them all, one should sit integrated, deeming Me supreme. Stable is his wisdom who has brought his senses under control.

2.379. Sitting integrated means having the thought “I am no different from Sri Krishna”. Such Yogi has stable wisdom.

2.380.

ध्यायतो विषयान्पुंसः सङ्गस्तेषूपजायते ।

सङ्गात्सञ्जायते कामः कामात्क्रोधोऽभिजायते ॥ ६२ ॥

2.381. Brooding on the objects of senses, a person develops attachment to them; from attachment comes desire; from desire sprouts anger.

2.382.

क्रोधाद्भवति संमोहः संमोहात्स्मृतिविभ्रमः ।

स्मृतिभ्रंशाद्बुद्धिनाशो बुद्धिनाशात्प्रणश्यति ॥ ६३ ॥

2.383. From wrath arises delusion; from delusion failure of memory. From loss of memory reason gets ruined. From loss of reason he perishes.

2.384. From anger arises the delusion or lack of discrimination. Angry man rails even at his teacher.

2.385. From the delusion one fails to relate to his teachings; this is the loss of memory of the sastras & instructions of teachers.

2.386. From loss of memory his ability to discriminate between right and wrong perishes. This destroys the man.

2.387. Surpanaka for eg. was attracted to Rama and could not take her eyes off him. We all know what happened to her at the end.

2.388. Thus the contemplation of the objects is known as the root cause of evil.

2.389.

रागद्वेषवियुक्तैस्तु विषयानिन्द्रियैश्चरन् ।

आत्मवश्यैर्विधेयात्मा प्रसादमधिगच्छति ॥ ६४ ॥

2.390. Approaching objects with senses free from attachment and aversion, and controlled by the mind, the man wins serenity.

2.391. What happens when serenity is won?

2.392.

प्रसादे सर्वदुःखानां हानिरस्योपजायते ।

प्रसन्नचेतसो ह्याशु बुद्धिः पर्यवतिष्ठते ॥ ६५ ॥

2.393.

When serenity is won, suffering comes to an end. The reason of the person whose mind is serene becomes steadfast.

2.394. This man is capable of approaching the unavoidable sense-objects free from attachment or aversion. Thus no evil befalls him.

2.395.

नास्ति बुद्धिरयुक्तस्य न चायुक्तस्य भावना ।

न चाभावयतः शान्तिरशान्तस्य कुतः सुखम् ॥ ६६ ॥

2.396. There is no wisdom in the fickle-minded nor is there meditation on the Self in him. 1/2

2.397. Without yearning for Self-knowledge no peace is possible. How can there be happiness? 2/2

2.398. इन्द्रियाणां हि विषयसेवातृष्णातः निवृत्तिर्या तत्सुखम्, न विषयविषया तृष्णा । दुःखमेव हि सा ।

2.399. The turning away of the senses from the craving for enjoyment of objects is real happiness.

2.400. The craving for objects is indeed the pain.

2.401. न तृष्णायां सत्यां सुखस्य गन्धमात्रमप्युपपद्यते इत्यर्थः ॥ So long as there is craving, there cannot be the remotest semblance of happiness.

2.402. अयुक्तस्य कस्माद्बुद्धिर्नास्ति इति ? Why cant the unintegrated man gain wisdom?

2.403.

इन्द्रियाणां हि चरतां यन्मनोऽनुविधीयते ।

तदस्य हरति प्रज्ञां वायुर्नावमिवाम्भसि ॥ ६७ ॥

2.404. The mind that conforms to the roving senses robs one of his perception, just as the wind sweeps the boat off its course at sea.

2.405. The idea is the indiscriminate pursuit of objects robs the man of his clear perception of what the objects ultimately entails.

2.406. In verse 2.60 the Lord contended that the impetuous senses drive the mind away and in the succeeding 8 verses explained it.

2.407. Now Bhagavan winds up the discussion on this subject.

2.408.

तस्माद्यस्य महाबाहो निगृहीतानि सर्वशः ।

इन्द्रियाणीन्द्रियार्थेभ्यस्तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ॥ ६८ ॥

2.409. Therefore, O Hero! his wisdom is stable whose senses have been withdrawn on all sides from their respective objects.

2.410.

या निशा सर्वभूतानां तस्यां जागर्ति संयमी ।

यस्यां जाग्रति भूतानि सा निशा पश्यतो मुनेः ॥ ६९ ॥

2.411. The restrained sage is awake in what is night for all living beings while, when the latters are awake it is night for the silent sage.

2.412. At night people cannot distinquish the objects. Thus the objects become unknown.

2.413. When ordinary folks go about craving for objects it is as if it is night for the sage is the idea.

2.414. अतः कर्माणि अविद्यावस्थायामेव चोद्यन्ते, न विद्यावस्थायाम् । Therefore, karmas are enjoined only in one’s state of ignorance (of Self) not in that of knowledge.

2.415. विद्यायां हि सत्याम् उदिते सवितरि शार्वरमिव तमः प्रणाशमुपगच्छति अविद्या । When knowledge dawns, nescience perishes like the darkness of the night when the sun rises.

2.416. The idea is that you stop doing something when the understanding dawns on you that it is useless to you.

2.417.

आपूर्यमाणमचलप्रतिष्ठं समुद्रमापः प्रविशन्ति यद्वत् ।

तद्वत्कामा यं प्रविशन्ति सर्वे स शान्तिमाप्नोति न कामकामी ॥ ७० ॥

2.418. He wins peace into whose mind objects of desires enter as waters flow into a full and stable sea that is being filled; and not he who years after objects of desire.

2.419.

विहाय कामान्यः सर्वान्पुमांश्चरति निःस्पृहः ।

निर्ममो निरहङ्कारः स शान्तिमधिगच्छति ॥ ७१ ॥

2.420. The man who, giving up all objects of desires, moves about seeking nothing. and rid of all sense of ‘mine’ and ‘I’ wins peace.

2.421. निरहङ्कारः विद्यावत्त्वादिनिमित्तात्मसम्भावनारहितः इत्येतत् । Devoid of egoism, being free from all forms of self-esteem he bases only on his scholarship.

2.422. सः एवंभूतः स्थितप्रज्ञः ब्रह्मवित् शान्तिं सर्वसंसारदुःखोपरमलक्षणां निर्वाणाख्याम् अधिगच्छति प्राप्नोति ब्रह्मभूतो भवति ।

2.423. Thus the sage of stable wisdom, the knower of Brahman attains peace – the cessaion of all forms of transmigratory sufferings.  1/2

2.424. This is Nirvana. He becomes assimilated into Brahman. 2/2

2.425.

एषा ब्राह्मी स्थितिः पार्थ नैनां प्राप्य विमुह्यति ।

स्थित्वास्यामन्तकालेऽपि ब्रह्मनिर्वाणमृच्छति ॥ ७२ ॥

2.426. This is the status of Brahman, O Arjuna! Attaining it none gets deluded any more. 1/2

2.427 Abiding it it, atleast at the hour of death, one gains super-consciousness in Brahman.

2.428. Thus ends the 2nd Chapter of Bhagavat Geeta known as Samkhya Yoga.

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