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अविनाशि तु तद्विद्धि येन सर्वमिदं ततम् ।

विनाशमव्ययस्यास्य न कश्चित्कर्तुमर्हति ॥ १७ ॥

2.112. On the contrary, know that to be imperishable by which all this is pervaded. None can destroy that which is immutable.

2.113. येन सर्वम् इदं जगत् ततं व्याप्तं सदाख्येन ब्रह्मणा साकाशम्, आकाशेनेव घटादयः ।

2.114. Brahman, or SAT ie. Being by which the whole world together with the sky,is pervaded, just as the pot and the like are pervaded by the sky.

2.115. When something is destroyed it results in non-perception of it indicating it had ceased to exist.

2.116. When a pot is destroyed, its content SAT, the existence is not destroyed for you see it is available in another object such as cloth.

2.117. Thus SAT is perceived by inference and concluded to have NOT CEASED TO EXIST.

2.118. In this way the SAT remains permanent while ASAT such as pot, cloth etc rise and fall into this SAT.

2.119. Does Brahman, the SAT undergo change?

2.120. No, Brahman does not undergo change for it is partless unlike the body. Its properties do not change for the simple reason it has NO property!

2.121. Because of this reason, Brahman wont decay while Devadatta will because of the loss of his wealth.

2.122. Thus this Brahman is beyond destruction and it is immutable. Indeed the Self is Brahman.


अन्तवन्त इमे देहा नित्यस्योक्ताः शरीरिणः ।

अनाशिनोऽप्रमेयस्य तस्माद्युध्यस्व भारत ॥ १८ ॥

2.124. These bodies that perish are said to pertain to the eternal Self that is embdied, the eternal Self that is imperishable and indeterminable.

2.125. Therefore, fight, O scion of the Bharatas!

2.126. अन्तः विनाशः विद्यते येषां ते अन्तवन्तः । The perishables are things that have an end or anta. What is an end?

2.127. For instance, the idea of reality, associated with things like a mirage, snaps when tested by mean of right cognition. This is the end.

2.128. Likewise, these bodies of the eternal and indeterminable Self are perishable like the bodies seen in a dream.

2.129. The expressions ‘eternal’ ‘imperishable’ (‘नित्यस्य’ ‘अनाशिनः’) are not tautologous; for eternity and perishability are two different things.

2.130. For eg. a body, reduced to ashes and no longer perceptible is said to have perished.

2.131. Even if it exists, if it has undergone a great deal of transformation due to disease etc. then their is the perishability.

2.132. The expressions ‘नित्यस्य’ ‘अनाशिनः’ rules out both these forms of destruction as regrds the Self.

2.133. So what is ‘indeterminable’?

2.134. “Of the indeterminable” means of that which is not measurable by the means of right cognition like perception and so forth.

2.135. It may be objected: The Self is measured or determined by Revelation, and earlier, by perception and so forth.

2.136. Answer: No, the Self is self-established.

2.137. Indeed it is only when the knower, the Self, is given, that there arises the search for the means for the right cognition on the part of the seeker after knowledge.

2.138. Without knowing the Self earlier as “I am so and so” none attempts to secure determinate knowledge of the object of knowledge.

2.139. To none at all is the Self altogether unknown.

2.140. The final means of right cognition, the sastra acquires validity as regards the Self.


2.142. तथा च श्रुतिः — ‘यत्साक्षादपरोक्षाद्ब्रह्म य आत्मा सर्वान्तरः’ (बृ. उ. ३-५-१) इति ॥

2.143. “That which is immediately present is Brahman, the Self in all” (BU)2.144. Since the Sef is thus eternal and immutable, you must fight, not withdraw from battle–this is the sense.

2.145. Here fighting is not enjoined as a duty for Arjuna has already addressed himself to fight. He remained immobilized due to grief & delusion.

2.146. Therefore Krishna removes the impediment in Arjuna’s path to the performance of his duty.

2.147. Hence ‘fight’ is a restatement of a given position and not an original injunction.

2.148. शोकमोहादिसंसारकारणनिवृत्त्यर्थः गीताशास्त्रम्, न प्रवर्तकम् इत्येतस्यार्थस्य साक्षिभूते ऋचौ आनीनाय भगवान् ।

2.149. यत्तु मन्यसे ‘युद्धे भीष्मादयो मया हन्यन्ते’ ‘अहमेव तेषां हन्ता’ इति, एषा बुद्धिः मृषैव ते । (KU 2.18 & 19)

2.150. The Lord has cited two mantras that testify to the fact that the science of the Gita purports to remove:

2.150. the cause of transmigratory life consisting of grief, delusion etc and not to compel or incite anyone to initiate action of any kind.

2.151. It tells Arjuna: Your notion that people like Bhishma are slain by you in battle & that you are the slayer is indeed false.

2.152. How? We will see in the next session.

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