BHAGAVAT GEETHA – CHAPTER 2 – SAMKHYA YOGA – THE YOGA OF KNOWLEDGE (Part – 8)

–> Previous Set of Tweets

2.345. From verse 55 to the end of the chapter are taught the characteristics of, and the means employed by the sage of stable wisdom.

2.346. The sage of stable wisdom concerns himself with the discipline of knowledge (ज्ञानयोगनिष्ठा).  How does he do it?

2.347. He does so either after renouncing all karmas right from the beginning, or he may have become a sage after practising Karma Yoga.

2.348. सर्वत्रैव हि अध्यात्मशास्त्रे कृतार्थलक्षणानि यानि तान्येव साधनानि उपदिश्यन्ते, यत्नसाध्यत्वात् ।

2.349. For in all the sastras the very characteristics of the perfected sage have been set forth for those who wish to follow this path.

2.350. यानि यत्नसाध्यानि साधनानि लक्षणानि च भवन्ति – Thus, indeed, are these characteristics acquired through direct effort.

2.351.

श्रीभगवानुवाच —

प्रजहाति यदा कामान्सर्वान्पार्थ मनोगतान् ।

आत्मन्येवात्मना तुष्टः स्थितप्रज्ञस्तदोच्यते ॥ ५५ ॥

2.352. Bhagavan said: When one wholly discards desires of the heart and becomes exclusively content with the Self, that One is called a Sage.

2.353. Wholly discards means in an eminent degree, one gives up all desires that fill the heart.

2.354. Objection: When all desires are discarded, satisfaction dries up, still there would remain the need to sustain the body.

2.355. What follows then may well be aimless movements as of a person deranged.

2.356. Answer: So Bhagavan says “(Be) content with the Self.” The idea is contentment should be due to the Self alone, independent of external gain.

2.357. Since he has tasted the immortalizing nectar of supreme knowledge he is indifferent to everything else.

2.358. His wisdom born of discrimination between the Self and non-self has become stabilized. So he has stable wisdom.

2.359.

दुःखेष्वनुद्विग्नमनाः सुखेषु विगतस्पृहः ।

वीतरागभयक्रोधः स्थितधीर्मुनिरुच्यते ॥ ५६ ॥

2.360. The silent sage is said to hav stable wisdom when sufferings no longer perturb his mind; 1/2

2.361. when he ceases to cling to pleasures, and he is rid of attachment, fear and wrath. 2/2

2.362.

यः सर्वत्रानभिस्नेहस्तत्तत्प्राप्य शुभाशुभम् ।

नाभिनन्दति न द्वेष्टि तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ॥ ५७ ॥

2.363. His wisdom is stable who clings to nothing good or evil when they occur to him. He neither seeks nor shuns them.

2.364.

यदा संहरते चायं कूर्मोऽङ्गानीव सर्वशः ।

इन्द्रियाणीन्द्रियार्थेभ्यस्तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ॥ ५८ ॥

2.365. When he wholly withdraws his senses from their objects, just as a tortoise does his limbs from all sides, his wisdom is stable.

2.366.

विषया विनिवर्तन्ते निराहारस्य देहिनः ।

रसवर्जं रसोऽप्यस्य परं दृष्ट्वा निवर्तते ॥ ५९ ॥

2.367. Objects, but not the taste for them, fall off as regards the man who feeds not on them.  1/2

2.368. When he intuits the supreme Reality, even this taste wanes. 2/2

2.369. सोऽपि रसो रञ्जनारूपः सूक्ष्मः अस्य यतेः परं परमार्थतत्त्वं ब्रह्म दृष्ट्वा उपलभ्य ‘अहमेव तत्’ इति वर्तमानस्य निवर्तते निर्बीजं विषयविज्ञानं सम्पद्यते इत्यर्थः ।

2.370. Even the subtle joy which makes objects attractive retreats from the disciplined sage once he realizes the Supreme Reality as “I am verily That”.

2.371. सम्यग्दर्शनलक्षणप्रज्ञास्थैर्यं चिकीर्षता आदौ इन्द्रियाणि स्ववशे स्थापयितव्यानि, यस्मात्तदनवस्थापने दोषमाह —

2.372. One who seeks stability of wisdom, defined as right knowledge, must first control the senses. Otherwise, evil may ensue.

2.373.

यततो ह्यपि कौन्तेय पुरुषस्य विपश्चितः ।

इन्द्रियाणि प्रमाथीनि हरन्ति प्रसभं मनः ॥ ६० ॥

2.374. The excited sesnse, O son of Kunti, impetuously carry away the mind of even a wise man who is striving for perfection.

2.375. The impetuous senses drive him towards the objects and agitate his mind. 1/2

2.376. Even though he has right knowledge, failing to control the senses carry him away to disaster. 2/2

2.377.

तानि सर्वाणि संयम्य युक्त आसीत मत्परः ।

वशे हि यस्येन्द्रियाणि तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ॥ ६१ ॥

2.378. Controlling them all, one should sit integrated, deeming Me supreme. Stable is his wisdom who has brought his senses under control.

2.379. Sitting integrated means having the thought “I am no different from Sri Krishna”. Such Yogi has stable wisdom.

2.380.

ध्यायतो विषयान्पुंसः सङ्गस्तेषूपजायते ।

सङ्गात्सञ्जायते कामः कामात्क्रोधोऽभिजायते ॥ ६२ ॥

2.381. Brooding on the objects of senses, a person develops attachment to them; from attachment comes desire; from desire sprouts anger.

2.382.

क्रोधाद्भवति संमोहः संमोहात्स्मृतिविभ्रमः ।

स्मृतिभ्रंशाद्बुद्धिनाशो बुद्धिनाशात्प्रणश्यति ॥ ६३ ॥

2.383. From wrath arises delusion; from delusion failure of memory. From loss of memory reason gets ruined. From loss of reason he perishes.

2.384. From anger arises the delusion or lack of discrimination. Angry man rails even at his teacher.

2.385. From the delusion one fails to relate to his teachings; this is the loss of memory of the sastras & instructions of teachers.

2.386. From loss of memory his ability to discriminate between right and wrong perishes. This destroys the man.

2.387. Surpanaka for eg. was attracted to Rama and could not take her eyes off him. We all know what happened to her at the end.

2.388. Thus the contemplation of the objects is known as the root cause of evil.

2.389.

रागद्वेषवियुक्तैस्तु विषयानिन्द्रियैश्चरन् ।

आत्मवश्यैर्विधेयात्मा प्रसादमधिगच्छति ॥ ६४ ॥

2.390. Approaching objects with senses free from attachment and aversion, and controlled by the mind, the man wins serenity.

2.391. What happens when serenity is won?

2.392.

प्रसादे सर्वदुःखानां हानिरस्योपजायते ।

प्रसन्नचेतसो ह्याशु बुद्धिः पर्यवतिष्ठते ॥ ६५ ॥

2.393.

When serenity is won, suffering comes to an end. The reason of the person whose mind is serene becomes steadfast.

2.394. This man is capable of approaching the unavoidable sense-objects free from attachment or aversion. Thus no evil befalls him.

2.395.

नास्ति बुद्धिरयुक्तस्य न चायुक्तस्य भावना ।

न चाभावयतः शान्तिरशान्तस्य कुतः सुखम् ॥ ६६ ॥

2.396. There is no wisdom in the fickle-minded nor is there meditation on the Self in him. 1/2

2.397. Without yearning for Self-knowledge no peace is possible. How can there be happiness? 2/2

2.398. इन्द्रियाणां हि विषयसेवातृष्णातः निवृत्तिर्या तत्सुखम्, न विषयविषया तृष्णा । दुःखमेव हि सा ।

2.399. The turning away of the senses from the craving for enjoyment of objects is real happiness.

2.400. The craving for objects is indeed the pain.

2.401. न तृष्णायां सत्यां सुखस्य गन्धमात्रमप्युपपद्यते इत्यर्थः ॥ So long as there is craving, there cannot be the remotest semblance of happiness.

2.402. अयुक्तस्य कस्माद्बुद्धिर्नास्ति इति ? Why cant the unintegrated man gain wisdom?

2.403.

इन्द्रियाणां हि चरतां यन्मनोऽनुविधीयते ।

तदस्य हरति प्रज्ञां वायुर्नावमिवाम्भसि ॥ ६७ ॥

2.404. The mind that conforms to the roving senses robs one of his perception, just as the wind sweeps the boat off its course at sea.

2.405. The idea is the indiscriminate pursuit of objects robs the man of his clear perception of what the objects ultimately entails.

2.406. In verse 2.60 the Lord contended that the impetuous senses drive the mind away and in the succeeding 8 verses explained it.

2.407. Now Bhagavan winds up the discussion on this subject.

2.408.

तस्माद्यस्य महाबाहो निगृहीतानि सर्वशः ।

इन्द्रियाणीन्द्रियार्थेभ्यस्तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ॥ ६८ ॥

2.409. Therefore, O Hero! his wisdom is stable whose senses have been withdrawn on all sides from their respective objects.

2.410.

या निशा सर्वभूतानां तस्यां जागर्ति संयमी ।

यस्यां जाग्रति भूतानि सा निशा पश्यतो मुनेः ॥ ६९ ॥

2.411. The restrained sage is awake in what is night for all living beings while, when the latters are awake it is night for the silent sage.

2.412. At night people cannot distinquish the objects. Thus the objects become unknown.

2.413. When ordinary folks go about craving for objects it is as if it is night for the sage is the idea.

2.414. अतः कर्माणि अविद्यावस्थायामेव चोद्यन्ते, न विद्यावस्थायाम् । Therefore, karmas are enjoined only in one’s state of ignorance (of Self) not in that of knowledge.

2.415. विद्यायां हि सत्याम् उदिते सवितरि शार्वरमिव तमः प्रणाशमुपगच्छति अविद्या । When knowledge dawns, nescience perishes like the darkness of the night when the sun rises.

2.416. The idea is that you stop doing something when the understanding dawns on you that it is useless to you.

2.417.

आपूर्यमाणमचलप्रतिष्ठं समुद्रमापः प्रविशन्ति यद्वत् ।

तद्वत्कामा यं प्रविशन्ति सर्वे स शान्तिमाप्नोति न कामकामी ॥ ७० ॥

2.418. He wins peace into whose mind objects of desires enter as waters flow into a full and stable sea that is being filled; and not he who years after objects of desire.

2.419.

विहाय कामान्यः सर्वान्पुमांश्चरति निःस्पृहः ।

निर्ममो निरहङ्कारः स शान्तिमधिगच्छति ॥ ७१ ॥

2.420. The man who, giving up all objects of desires, moves about seeking nothing. and rid of all sense of ‘mine’ and ‘I’ wins peace.

2.421. निरहङ्कारः विद्यावत्त्वादिनिमित्तात्मसम्भावनारहितः इत्येतत् । Devoid of egoism, being free from all forms of self-esteem he bases only on his scholarship.

2.422. सः एवंभूतः स्थितप्रज्ञः ब्रह्मवित् शान्तिं सर्वसंसारदुःखोपरमलक्षणां निर्वाणाख्याम् अधिगच्छति प्राप्नोति ब्रह्मभूतो भवति ।

2.423. Thus the sage of stable wisdom, the knower of Brahman attains peace – the cessaion of all forms of transmigratory sufferings.  1/2

2.424. This is Nirvana. He becomes assimilated into Brahman. 2/2

2.425.

एषा ब्राह्मी स्थितिः पार्थ नैनां प्राप्य विमुह्यति ।

स्थित्वास्यामन्तकालेऽपि ब्रह्मनिर्वाणमृच्छति ॥ ७२ ॥

2.426. This is the status of Brahman, O Arjuna! Attaining it none gets deluded any more. 1/2

2.427 Abiding it it, atleast at the hour of death, one gains super-consciousness in Brahman.

2.428. Thus ends the 2nd Chapter of Bhagavat Geeta known as Samkhya Yoga.

–> Next set of tweets

Advertisements

BHAGAVAT GEETHA – CHAPTER 2 – SAMKHYA YOGA – THE YOGA OF KNOWLEDGE (Part – 7)

–> Previous set of tweets

2.300.

दूरेण ह्यवरं कर्म बुद्धियोगाद्धनञ्जय ।

बुद्धौ शरणमन्विच्छ कृपणाः फलहेतवः ॥ ४९ ॥

2.301. Work impelled by the desire for the fruit is indeed far inferior. Evenness of mind is far above it. 1/2

2.302. O Arjuna! Take refuge in the evenness of intelligence. Pitiful are those impedded by the desire for the fruits of work. 2/2

2.303. Work impelled by the desire causes birth and death and so forth because only by rebith can you be able to reep the fruits.

2.304. Birth causes sorrow and eventual death. So Work impelled by the desire is inferior.

2.305. Resorting to the Yoga of evenness of intellignece is Samkhya which is much more mature than pursuit of desire-born karma

2.306. Ultimately, “Seek refuge in the knowledge of the supreme Reality” is the idea. Those who pursue inferior desire-born work are pitiful.

2.307. ‘यो वा एतदक्षरं गार्ग्यविदित्वास्माल्लोकात्प्रैति स कृपणः’ (बृ. उ. ३-८-१०) इति श्रुतेः ॥

2.308. “Gargi! Pitiful is he who departs from this world before knowing that imperishable Aatman (BU.3.8.10)

2.309. समत्वबुद्धियुक्तः सन् स्वधर्ममनुतिष्ठन् यत्फलं प्राप्नोति तच्छृणु

2.310. What fruits is gained by him who conforms to the law of his life with the intelligence of mind’s evenness?

2.311.

बुद्धियुक्तो जहातीह उभे सुकृतदुष्कृते ।

तस्माद्योगाय युज्यस्व योगः कर्मसु कौशलम् ॥ ५० ॥

2.312. With the intellignece of evenness one discards in this world both good and evil works ie. both paapa and punya karmas. 1/2

2.313. Therefore strive to secure this Yoga. Yoga is skill in karma. 2/2

2.314. What is skill in the performance of works?

2.315. The skill consists in maintaining the evenness of mind in success and failure in the performance of works as one’s duty. 1/2

2.316. And the evenness of mind also consists in dedicating it to Eawara. The skill consists of both. 2/2

2.317.

कर्मजं बुद्धियुक्तं हि फलं त्यक्त्वा मनीषिणः ।

जन्मबन्धविनिर्मुक्ताः पदं गच्छन्त्यनामयम् ॥ ५१ ॥

2.318. Wisemen united with the intelligence of evenness, discard the fruits of karma. 1/2

2.319. They are liberated from the bondage of birth and attain the status which is free from all sufferings. 2/2

2.320. कर्मजं फलं त्यक्त्वा इति व्यवहितेन सम्बन्धः । “Discarding the fruits of karma” is how the words in the verse have to construed.

2.321. Karmaja is means the fruits of karma born of work. Wisemen are those who possess the intelligence of evenness.

2.322. Birth is bondage. Discarding the fruits of work prevents future birth and thus liberation from the cycle of misery.

2.323.Is not mind’s purification a product of karma? When shall this intelligence of knowledge born of mind’s purification be won?

2.324.

यदा ते मोहकलिलं बुद्धिर्व्यतितरिष्यति ।

तदा गन्तासि निर्वेदं श्रोतव्यस्य श्रुतस्य च ॥ ५२ ॥

2.325. When your intellect goes beyond the mist of delusion, you will win detachment from both what is to be heard and what has been heard.

2.326. What is delusion?  Delusion occurs when your intellect goes beyond the mist of non-discrimination.

2.327. Non-discrimination is the obscuring of the distinction between the Self and the non-self.

2.328. The non-discrimination thus drives the inner-sense ie. the mind to the sphere of objects.

2.329. When the mind is throroughly cleansed you will reach detachment from both knowledge already gained and the knowledge yet to be gained.

2.330. What has been heard means the knowledge already gained. What is to be heard means the knowledge yet to be gained.

2.331. Both these are unprofitable from the point of Self (Aatman). This is the idea.

2.332. Paramaarthayoga is the yoga proper and it is the attainment of the real fruit of Karma Yoga.

2.333. Having won the discriminative knowledge of the Self through the destruction of the mist of delusion, when will u attain Paramarthayoga?

2.334.

श्रुतिविप्रतिपन्ना ते यदा स्थास्यति निश्चला ।

समाधावचला बुद्धिस्तदा योगमवाप्स्यसि ॥ ५३ ॥

2.335. You will win this Supreme Yoga when your intellect, bewildered by Vedic texts, becomes firm and unwavering in concentraton.

2.336. श्रुतिविप्रतिपन्ना –  ‘bewildered by Vedic texts’ refers to the intellect distracted by the manifold directions in Vedic Texts.

2.337. These elucidate the links between various ends and means, involving activities and abstentions therefrom.

2.338. Becoming stable and stirless, the intellect rests in concentration. This is samaadhi.

2.339. Concentration is the Aatma the Self in which the mind is concentrated. It is unwavering or free from all distractions.

2.340. This buddhi is the inner sense. Born of its discrimination you will win union. This concentration is the content of the spirit.

2.341. Yoga the Union is the uniting of the buddhi with Aatman.

2.342.

अर्जुन उवाच —

स्थितप्रज्ञस्य का भाषा समाधिस्थस्य केशव ।

स्थितधीः किं पृभाषेत किमासीत व्रजेत किम् ॥ ५४ ॥

Arjuna said: How can a man of stable wisdom, anchored in concentration, be described, O Krishna? 1/2

How can a man of steadfast intelligence speak? How does he sit? How walk? 2/2

–> Next Set of Tweets

BHAGAVAT GEETHA – CHAPTER 2 – SAMKHYA YOGA – THE YOGA OF KNOWLEDGE (Part – 6)

–> Previous set of tweets

2.258.

सुखदुःखे समे कृत्वा लाभालाभौ जयाजयौ ।

ततो युद्धाय युज्यस्व नैवं पापमवाप्स्यसि ॥ ३८ ॥

2.259. Treating alike pain and pleasure, gain and loss, victory and defeat, engage yourself in battle. Thus you will incur no sin.

2.260. “Looking with an equal eye” on pleasure and pain, i.e., without attachment to the former and aversion to the latter.

2.261.

एषा तेऽभिहिता साङ्‍ख्ये बुद्धिर्योगे त्विमां शृणु ।

बुद्ध्या युक्तो यया पार्थ कर्मबन्धं प्रहास्यसि ॥ ३९ ॥

2.262. This knowledge of the Samkhya has so far been imparted to you 1/2

2.263. Now, listen to the knowledge of Yoga by acquiring which, O Arjuna! you will discard the bondage of karma. 2/2

2.264. साङ्‍ख्ये परमार्थवस्तुविवेकविषये बुद्धिः  – The knowledge of Samkhya is the discrimination of metaphysical reality.

2.265. ज्ञानं साक्षात् शोकमोहादिसंसारहेतुदोषनिवृत्तिकारणम् ।

2.267. It is the cause of the removal of that flaw, attachment, aversion and so forth that engenders transmigratory life.

2.268. Yoga is the Karma Yoga that work is performed after detachment i.e., after discarding the pair of opposites such as attchement & aversion.

2.269. Acquiring the knowledge of Karma Yoga, O Arjuna! you will surely cast off the bondage of works!

2.270.

नेहाभिक्रमनाशोऽस्ति प्रत्यवायो न विद्यते ।

स्वल्पमप्यस्य धर्मस्य त्रायते महतो भयात् ॥ ४० ॥

2.271. Here in the sphere of Karma Yoga there is no loss of beginning. Neither is there the sin involved.

2.272. Even a little of Dhaarmic law delivers one from great peril.

2.273. The idea is no adverse reaction irrespective of how it began will ensue in this path of Karma Yoga.

2.274. On the other hand Karma Yoga will lead one away from the peril of transmigratory life of birth and death.

2.275.

व्यवसायात्मिका बुद्धिरेकेह कुरुनन्दन ।

बहुशाखा ह्यनन्ताश्च बुद्धयोऽव्यवसायिनाम् ॥ ४१ ॥

2.276.The conviction as regards this two-fold Yoga, marked by resolve, is single; the convictions of the irresolute are many scattered & endless.

2.277.

यामिमां पुष्पितां वाचं प्रवदन्त्यविपश्चितः ।

वेदवादरताः पार्थ नान्यदस्तीति वादिनः ॥ ४२ ॥

2.278. They are the unwise who utter flowey speeches, O Arjuna! They revel in the letter of the Vedas and declare “There is nothing else.”

2.279. They utter speech pleasant to hear and splendid like a tree in flower.

2.280.

कामात्मानः स्वर्गपरा जन्मकर्मफलप्रदाम् ।

क्रियाविशेषबहुलां भोगैश्वर्यगतिं प्रति ॥ ४३ ॥

2.281. Who are desire-ridden, who hold the attainment of heaven as the goal of janma and karma, whose words are laden with specific rites to bring in pleasure and lordship.

2.282. They are embodiment of cravings. They are ‘heaven-bent’ for their supreme goal in life. Their speech point to births as fruits of Vedic-rites.

2.283.

भोगैश्वर्यप्रसक्तानां तयापहृतचेतसाम् ।

व्यवसायात्मिका बुद्धिः समाधौ न विधीयते ॥ ४४ ॥

2.284. In the case of those who have given themselves up pleasures and power & whose minds have been enslaved by the words of Vedas that command rites, there is no chance of the resolute mind addressing itself to concentration.

2.285.

त्रैगुण्यविषया वेदा निस्त्रैगुण्यो भवार्जुन ।

निर्द्वन्द्वो नित्यसत्त्वस्थो निर्योगक्षेम आत्मवान् ॥ ४५ ॥

2.286. The Vedas enumerate the three Gunas.  You transcend the three Gunas, O Arjuna! 1/2

2.287. Be free from the pairs of opposites, ever-balanced, unconcerned with getting and keeping and centred in the Self. 2/2

2.288. निर्द्वन्द्वः सुखदुःखहेतू सप्रतिपक्षौ पदार्थौ द्वन्द्वशब्दवाच्यौ, ततः निर्गतः निर्द्वन्द्वो भव ।

2.290.

यावानर्थ उदपाने सर्वतःसम्प्लुतोदके ।

तावान् सर्वेषु वेदेषु ब्राह्मणस्य विजानतः ॥ ४६ ॥

For a knower of Brahman who has realised the ultimate Truth, there is as much profit from all the Vedas as there is profit from reservoirs when there is an inundation!

2.291.

कर्मण्येवाधिकारस्ते मा फलेषु कदाचन ।

मा कर्मफलहेतुर्भूर्मा ते सङ्गोऽस्त्वकर्मणि ॥ ४७ ॥

2.292. You have a right only to your duty but not to the fruits of work in performed.

2.293. These fruits come back to haunt you so dont be a producer of those fruits. But let this also not lead you to inaction.

2.294. You may think that you have a right to claim those fruits. When you crave for them, you make yourself liable to reap them.

2.295. These fruits that you crave for result only in rebirth in this miserable world of samsaara.

2.296.

योगस्थः कुरु कर्माणि सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा धनञ्जय ।

सिद्ध्यसिद्ध्योः समो भूत्वा समत्वं योग उच्यते ॥ ४८ ॥

2.297. Giving up attachment and established in Yoga, with evenness of mind in success and failure, perform work, O Arjuna!

This evenness is Yoga.

2.298. ‘Success’ is attainment of knowledge born out of mental purity, resulting from working without craving for its fruit.

2.299. Failure is due to the work of opposite sort. Yoga is to keep evenness of these two opposites.

–> Next set of tweets

BHAGAVAT GEETHA – CHAPTER 2 – SAMKHYA YOGA – THE YOGA OF KNOWLEDGE (Part – 5)

–> Previous set of tweets

2.209.

वासांसि जीर्णानि यथा विहाय नवानि गृह्णाति नरोऽपराणि ।

तथा शरीराणि विहाय जीर्णान्यन्यानि संयाति नवानि देही ॥ २२ ॥

2.210. As a man casting off worn-out clothes puts on new ones, so the embodied, casting off worn-out bodies enters into new ones.

2.211.

नैनं छिन्दन्ति शस्त्राणि नैनं दहति पावकः ।

न चैनं क्लेदयन्त्यापो न शोषयति मारुतः ॥ २३ ॥

2.212. Weapons do not cut It; fire does not burn It. Neither does water wet it nor does the wind dry it.

 2.213. Since it is impartite no part of it is severed.  So also fire cannot reduce it to ashes etc. meaning a partless entity cannot be destroyed.

 2.214.

अच्छेद्योऽयमदाह्योऽयमक्लेद्योऽशोष्य एव च ।

नित्यः सर्वगतः स्थाणुरचलोऽयं सनातनः ॥ २४ ॥

 2.215. This Self cannot be cut, burned, wetted or dried. Eternal, all-pervasive, stable, immovable and everlasting is It.

 2.216. The elements tend to ruin one another but they have no power to destroy this Self, therefore It is eternal.

 2.217. Being eternal, It is all-pervasive, being all-pervasive it is stable like a pillar. Being stable it is immovable.

 2.218. As such It is evelasting, it is ancient and not produced by any cause whatsoever. In this sense it is ever-new.

 2.219. Perhaps the Lord visualized the biblical opinion that there is a god bent upon creating souls so this denial of creation is emphatic!

 2.220.

अव्यक्तोऽयमचिन्त्योऽयमविकार्योऽयमुच्यते ।

तस्मादेवं विदित्वैनं नानुशोचितुमर्हसि ॥ २५ ॥

 2.221. This Self is said to be unmanifest, unthinkable and immutable. Knowing it to be as such you ought not to grieve for it.

 2.222. This Self is beyond the senses, meaning it cannot be perceived by any sense organ so much so it is unmanifest.

 2.223. You think of anything only as a result of sense perception. As the Self is beyond the senses it is imponderable.

 2.224. Unlike milk that changes into curds, this Self does not undergo any change whatsoever. Also because it is partless.

 2.225. If the Self is known as such then where is the question of someone being the slayer and another being the slain?

2.226. Supposing, for argument’s sake, the non-eternity of the Self is considered, what is the stand? Krishna says:

2.227.

अथ चैनं नित्यजातं नित्यं वा मन्यसे मृतम् ।

तथापि त्वं महाबाहो नैवं शोचितुमर्हसि ॥ २६ ॥

2.228. Even if you think that the Self is perpetually born and perpetually dies, still, O Hero! you ought not to grieve for this.

2.229.

जातस्य हि ध्रुवो मृत्युर्ध्रुवं जन्म मृतस्य च ।

तस्मादपरिहार्येऽर्थे न त्वं शोचितुमर्हसि ॥ २७ ॥

2.230. Death is certain of that which is born; birth is certain of that which is dead. You should not lament over the inevitable.

2.231.

अव्यक्तादीनि भूतानि व्यक्तमध्यानि भारत ।

अव्यक्तनिधनान्येव तत्र का परिदेवना ॥ २८ ॥

2.232. O Bharata! Beings are all unmanifested in their origin and equally unmanifested in the end.

2.233. In the mid-state it is manifested. What is the point for the lament in such a situation?

2.234. Here the idea is what is unmanifest before and equally unmanifest later in the end has only a seeming manifest existence in the middle.

2.235. The seeming manifest existence in the middle is a Brama, unreal. So why lament on the unreal?

2.236. The Self in question is hard to comprehend. Why should I blame you alone when the cause of delusion is universal?

2.237.

आश्चर्यवत्पश्यति कश्चिदेनमाश्चर्यवद्वदति तथैव चान्यः ।

आश्चर्यवच्चैनमन्यः शृणोति श्रुत्वाप्येनं वेद न चैव कश्चित् ॥ २९ ॥

2.238. One beholds It as a marvel. Another talks of it as a marvel. Yet another hears of it as a marvel. After hearing none indeed knows it aright.

2.239. आश्चर्यवत् आश्चर्यम् अदृष्टपूर्वम् अद्भुतम् अकस्माद्दृश्यमानं तेन तुल्यं आश्चर्यवत् आश्चर्यमिति एनम् आत्मानं पश्यति कश्चित् ।

2.240. A marvel is what is unseen before, a wonder, that is unexpectedly seen.  So, as a marvel one beholds the Self.

2.241.

देही नित्यमवध्योऽयं देहे सर्वस्य भारत ।

तस्मात्सर्वाणि भूतानि न त्वं शोचितुमर्हसि ॥ ३० ॥

2.242. This embodied Self in all the bodies, O Bharata Prince! is invulnerable, indestructible. Therefore you ought not grieve for any being.

2.243.

स्वधर्ममपि चावेक्ष्य न विकम्पितुमर्हसि ।

धर्म्याद्धि युद्धाच्छ्रेयोऽन्यत्क्षत्त्रियस्य न विद्यते ॥ ३१ ॥

2.244. Again looking at you own duty (svadharma) you should not waver. For, there is nothing more welcome to a Kshatriya than a just war.

2.245.

यदृच्छया चोपपन्नं स्वर्गद्वारमपावृतम् ।

सुखिनः क्षत्रियाः पार्थ लभन्ते युद्धमीदृशम् ॥ ३२ ॥

2.246. Happy are the kshatriyas, O Partha! who obtains such a warfare that comes unsought as an open gateway to heaven.

2.247.

अथ चेत्त्वमिमं धर्म्यं सङ्ग्रामं न करिष्यसि ।

ततः स्वधर्मं कीर्तिं च हित्वा पापमवाप्स्यसि ॥ ३३ ॥

2.248. On the other hand, if you refuse to fight this dharma yuddha, sacrificing both your own swadharma as a kshatriya and your fame (keerthi) as a prince you will incur sin.

2.249.

अकीर्तिं चापि भूतानि कथयिष्यन्ति तेऽव्ययाम् ।

सम्भावितस्य चाकीर्तिर्मरणादतिरिच्यते ॥ ३४ ॥

2.250. All will recount your everlasting infamy! For the honoured one infamy is worse than death.

2.251.

भयाद्रणादुपरतं मंस्यन्ते त्वां महारथाः ।

येषां च त्वं बहुमतो भूत्वा यास्यसि लाघवम् ॥ ३५ ॥

2.252. Great heros will deem that you ran away from the battle out of fear. Those very princes who have honoured you will begin to despise you.

2.253.

अवाच्यवादांश्च बहून्वदिष्यन्ति तवाहिताः ।

निन्दन्तस्तव सामर्थ्यं ततो दुःखतरं नु किम् ॥ ३६ ॥

2.254.

Your enemies will hurl at you many unmentionable insults. What can be more painful than that?

2.255.

हतो वा प्राप्स्यसि स्वर्गं जित्वा वा भोक्ष्यसे महीम् ।

तस्मादुत्तिष्ठ कौन्तेय युद्धाय कृतनिश्चयः ॥ ३७ ॥

2.256. Getting slain you will go to heaven, or if victorious you will enjoy this world. These are the only two options you have.

2.257. Therefore, O son of Kunti! Stand up, determined to fight!

–> Next set of tweets

BHAGAVAT GEETHA – CHAPTER 2 – SAMKHYA YOGA – THE YOGA OF KNOWLEDGE (Part – 4)

–>  Previous set of tweets

2.153

य एनं वेत्ति हन्तारं यश्चैनं मन्यते हतम् ।

उभौ तौ न विजानीतो नायं हन्ति न हन्यते ॥ १९ ॥

2.154. He who holds the Aatman as slayer and he who considers It as slain, both are ignorant. Aatman neither slays nor is it slain.

2.155. To say that which cannot be slain as being slain and to claim it as slayer comes from lack of discrimination of the real and the unreal.

2.156.

न जायते म्रियते वा कदाचिन्नायं भूत्वाभविता वा न भूयः ।

अजो नित्यः शाश्वतोऽयं पुराणो न हन्यते हन्यमाने शरीरे ॥ २० ॥

2.157. THIS SELF IS NEVER BORN, IT NEVER DIES EITHER. HAVING BEEN BORN IT NEVER CEASES TO BE, AGAIN. 1/2

2.158. UNBORN, ETERNAL AND EVERLASTING THIS ANCIENT ONE IS NOT SLAIN WHEN THE BODY IS SLAIN. 2/2

2.159. न जायते न उत्पद्यते, जनिलक्षणा वस्तुविक्रिया न आत्मनो विद्यते इत्यर्थः ।

2.160. The sense is that the trasnformation known as birth and death does not happen to the Self.

2.161. The phrase at any time (कदाचित् ) is associated with the negation of all transformations.

2.162. It means at no time whatsoever is It born and at no time does It die and so on.

2.163. Because, having been, meaning having experienced the state of being, this Self does not again reach the state of non-being.

2.164. Let us put it this way. The body ceases to exist after death but the Self does not cease to exist.

2.165. Therefore, It does not die.

2.166. What is birth? That which having been non-existent, comes into being, is said to be born. Such birth does not exist for the Self. Why?

2.167. Because unlike the body the Self did exist before birth. Therefore it is not born.

2.168. THAT WHICH HAVING BEEN NON-EXISTENT COMING INTO EXISTENCE IS BIRTH. THE SELF EXISTED BEFORE AND SO IT IS NOT BORN.

2.169. THAT WHICH HAVING BEEN EXISTENT CEASES TO BE IS CALLED DEATH. THE SELF EXISTS FOR EVER SO IT HAS NO DEATH.

2.170. The Self is everlasting and therefore transformations such as youth etc does not occur in it.

2.171. Being devoid of attributes (such as kaumaram, yavvanam, jaraa) It has no decay and this proves it is impartite.

2.172. What develops through the accession of parts is said to grow. Since it has no parts, it has no growth or change or decay.

2.173. That which has no parts consequently it has no growth and no decay and is therefore ever new, ever fresh.

2.174.  य एनं वेत्ति हन्तारं (tweet 2.153), Krishna affirmed this Self is neither the agent nor an object of slaying because of Its immutability.

2.175.

वेदाविनाशिनं नित्यं य एनमजमव्ययम् ।

कथं स पुरुषः पार्थ कं घातयति हन्ति कम् ॥ २१ ॥

2.176. How can a man, O Arjuna! who knows It as imperishable, the eternal, the unborn, the undecaying cause to kill anyone. Whom can He slay?

2.177. He who knows the Self as imperishable, how can he slay or be slain when he fights as a matter of duty?

2.178. BY TAKING THE EXAMPLE OF SLAYING & ITS IMPACT ON THE SELF, KRISHNA ACTUALLY POINTS OUT THAT ALL ACTIONS HAVE NO IMPACT ON THE SELF.

2.179. Through agnyaanam (ignorance) the immutable Self is deemed a knower of both the sense objects and of the Self itself.

2.180. The Self is supposed to know the objects such as sound etc. presented to the intellect. How does this happen?

2.181. Because there is lack of discrimination the Self from the modification of the intellect. That is..

2.182. The Self is said to know by virtue of the intellect’s modification of discrimination between the Self and the non-self.

2.183. Metaphysically, this knowledge by discrimination, too, is unreal!

2.184. विदुष— कर्मासम्भववचनात् यानि कर्माणि शास्त्रेण विधीयन्ते तानि अविदुषो विहितानि इति भगवतो निश्चयोऽवगम्यते ॥

2.185. On the basis of Bhagavan’s teaching, it is impossible for the Self-knower to act.

2.186. Whatever actions have been enjoined by the Sastras have reference only to the non-knower.

2.187. An objection could be raised: The knowledge has been enjoined on the non-knower only. 1/3

2.188. For those who know the enjoying of knowledge is pointless like the grinding of corn already ground. 2/3

2.189. Therefore the distinction that action is enjoined only on the non-knower & not the knower is illogical. 3/3

2.190. Answer: No, the distinction between the existence and non-existence is sound only in regard to what is to be accomplished.

2.191. After knowing the sense of injuctions of dos and donts, an Agnihotri for eg. assembles materials and performs.

2.192. Such is the condition of the non-knower of the Self who thinks I am an agent. I have to perform this.

2.193. But it is different in the case of one who masters the sense of propositions like “This Self is never born”.

2.194. After acquiring the knowledge (of the real Self) he has no ritualistic actions to perform.

2.195. On the dawn of the knowledge that the self is a non-agent, non-experiecer and so forth, no action supervenes him.

2.196. A distinction like this is logical. On the other hand to the one who thinks I am an agent, the next thought is: “I must perform.”

2.197. As regards such actions, he is obliged to follow the role of an agent. In his case the actions are performable.

2.198. THEREFORE BOTH THE SELF-KNOWER PERCEIVING THE IMMUTABILITY OF THE SELF AND THE SEEKER AFTER LIBERATION MUST RENOUNCED VEDA ENJOINED KARMAS.

2.199. तत्र केचित्पण्डितंमन्या वदन्ति — ‘जन्मादिषड्भावविक्रियारहितः अविक्रियः अकर्ता एकः अहमात्मा’ इति न कस्यचित् ज्ञानम् उत्पद्यते, यस्मिन् सति सर्वकर्मसंन्यासः उपदिश्यते इति ।

2.200. Some self-styled scholars say: None can acquire the knowledge “I am the Self”, that is the one who is a non-agent, who is immutable, 1/3

2.201. and who is free from the six transformations like birth and so forth, 2/3

2.202. that very knowledge by virtue of which the renunciation of all works is enjoined. 3/3

2.203. Such contention is untenable because it will stultify the Saastraic teaching as regards the Self such as “It is not born etc.”

2.204. If Sastra is accepted regarding dharma and adharma then why not also accept that knowledge of the Self it imparts?

2.205. And these self-styled scholars reply that the knowledge of the self is beyond the range of senses.

2.206. But the very same sastra stipulates “by the mind alone this Self is to be perceived.” ‘मनसैवानुद्रष्टव्यम्’ (बृ. उ. ४-४-१९)

2.207. How does the mind perceive the Self?

2.208. Purified by the Sastras and by the Guru and by control of itself and of the senses, this means of perception of the Self occurs.

–> Next set of tweets

BHAGAVAT GEETHA – CHAPTER 2 – SAMKHYA YOGA – THE YOGA OF KNOWLEDGE (Part – 3)

–> Previous set of tweets

2.111.

अविनाशि तु तद्विद्धि येन सर्वमिदं ततम् ।

विनाशमव्ययस्यास्य न कश्चित्कर्तुमर्हति ॥ १७ ॥

2.112. On the contrary, know that to be imperishable by which all this is pervaded. None can destroy that which is immutable.

2.113. येन सर्वम् इदं जगत् ततं व्याप्तं सदाख्येन ब्रह्मणा साकाशम्, आकाशेनेव घटादयः ।

2.114. Brahman, or SAT ie. Being by which the whole world together with the sky,is pervaded, just as the pot and the like are pervaded by the sky.

2.115. When something is destroyed it results in non-perception of it indicating it had ceased to exist.

2.116. When a pot is destroyed, its content SAT, the existence is not destroyed for you see it is available in another object such as cloth.

2.117. Thus SAT is perceived by inference and concluded to have NOT CEASED TO EXIST.

2.118. In this way the SAT remains permanent while ASAT such as pot, cloth etc rise and fall into this SAT.

2.119. Does Brahman, the SAT undergo change?

2.120. No, Brahman does not undergo change for it is partless unlike the body. Its properties do not change for the simple reason it has NO property!

2.121. Because of this reason, Brahman wont decay while Devadatta will because of the loss of his wealth.

2.122. Thus this Brahman is beyond destruction and it is immutable. Indeed the Self is Brahman.

2.123.

अन्तवन्त इमे देहा नित्यस्योक्ताः शरीरिणः ।

अनाशिनोऽप्रमेयस्य तस्माद्युध्यस्व भारत ॥ १८ ॥

2.124. These bodies that perish are said to pertain to the eternal Self that is embdied, the eternal Self that is imperishable and indeterminable.

2.125. Therefore, fight, O scion of the Bharatas!

2.126. अन्तः विनाशः विद्यते येषां ते अन्तवन्तः । The perishables are things that have an end or anta. What is an end?

2.127. For instance, the idea of reality, associated with things like a mirage, snaps when tested by mean of right cognition. This is the end.

2.128. Likewise, these bodies of the eternal and indeterminable Self are perishable like the bodies seen in a dream.

2.129. The expressions ‘eternal’ ‘imperishable’ (‘नित्यस्य’ ‘अनाशिनः’) are not tautologous; for eternity and perishability are two different things.

2.130. For eg. a body, reduced to ashes and no longer perceptible is said to have perished.

2.131. Even if it exists, if it has undergone a great deal of transformation due to disease etc. then their is the perishability.

2.132. The expressions ‘नित्यस्य’ ‘अनाशिनः’ rules out both these forms of destruction as regrds the Self.

2.133. So what is ‘indeterminable’?

2.134. “Of the indeterminable” means of that which is not measurable by the means of right cognition like perception and so forth.

2.135. It may be objected: The Self is measured or determined by Revelation, and earlier, by perception and so forth.

2.136. Answer: No, the Self is self-established.

2.137. Indeed it is only when the knower, the Self, is given, that there arises the search for the means for the right cognition on the part of the seeker after knowledge.

2.138. Without knowing the Self earlier as “I am so and so” none attempts to secure determinate knowledge of the object of knowledge.

2.139. To none at all is the Self altogether unknown.

2.140. The final means of right cognition, the sastra acquires validity as regards the Self.

2.141. THE SASTRA BY SETTING ASIDE THE NON-ATTRIBUTES OF THE SELF SUPERIMPOSED ON IT, AND BY REVEALING WHAT WAS ALTOGETHER UNKNOWN.

2.142. तथा च श्रुतिः — ‘यत्साक्षादपरोक्षाद्ब्रह्म य आत्मा सर्वान्तरः’ (बृ. उ. ३-५-१) इति ॥

2.143. “That which is immediately present is Brahman, the Self in all” (BU)2.144. Since the Sef is thus eternal and immutable, you must fight, not withdraw from battle–this is the sense.

2.145. Here fighting is not enjoined as a duty for Arjuna has already addressed himself to fight. He remained immobilized due to grief & delusion.

2.146. Therefore Krishna removes the impediment in Arjuna’s path to the performance of his duty.

2.147. Hence ‘fight’ is a restatement of a given position and not an original injunction.

2.148. शोकमोहादिसंसारकारणनिवृत्त्यर्थः गीताशास्त्रम्, न प्रवर्तकम् इत्येतस्यार्थस्य साक्षिभूते ऋचौ आनीनाय भगवान् ।

2.149. यत्तु मन्यसे ‘युद्धे भीष्मादयो मया हन्यन्ते’ ‘अहमेव तेषां हन्ता’ इति, एषा बुद्धिः मृषैव ते । (KU 2.18 & 19)

2.150. The Lord has cited two mantras that testify to the fact that the science of the Gita purports to remove:

2.150. the cause of transmigratory life consisting of grief, delusion etc and not to compel or incite anyone to initiate action of any kind.

2.151. It tells Arjuna: Your notion that people like Bhishma are slain by you in battle & that you are the slayer is indeed false.

2.152. How? We will see in the next session.

–>  Next set of tweets

BHAGAVAT GEETHA – CHAPTER 2 – SAMKHYA YOGA – THE YOGA OF KNOWLEDGE (2)

–> Previous set of tweets

2.47.

न त्वेवाहं जातु नासं न त्वं नेमे जनाधिपाः ।

न चैव न भविष्यामः सर्वे वयमतः परम् ॥ १२ ॥

2.48. NEVER, AT ANY TIME, HAVE I BEEN NOT; NEITHER YOU NOR THESE RULERS OF MEN. AND NEVER SHALL WE ALL CEASE TO BE.

2.49. This is the first philosophical statement by the Lord and therefore the most important one.

2.50. That you and I and everyone else has never been created and will never be destroyed clearly demarcates us from the Biblical religions.

2.51. WE ARE ETERNAL. YES, WE HAVE NO BEGINNING AND NO END. WE WERE NOT CREATED BY A SO CALLED GOD WHO THEY CALL AS YEHWEH OR ALLAH.

2.52. THE MYTH OF CREATION SHOULD BE BLASTED AND THEN ONLY CAN WE BE ABLE TO OVERCOME THESE ALIEN RELIGIONS.

2.53. STUPIDTY CANNOT BE BANNED BUT WE HAVE A RIGHT TO AND WE SHOULD STOP STUPID PEOPLE RUNNING AMOK, OTHERWISE WE AS A COMMUNITY GET DESTROYED.

2.54. अतीतेषु देहोत्पत्तिविनाशेषु घटादिषु वियदिव नित्य एव अहमासमित्यभिप्रायः ।

2.55. Though my bodies originated and perished in the past, in them all, like space in pots and the like, I remained an eternal entity.

2.56. SIMPLE FACT TO UNDERSTAND IS THAT THE SPACE IN THE POT IS NOT DESTROYED WHEN THE POT IS DESTROYED. IN THE SAME WAY YOU ARE NOT DESTROYED WHEN THE BODY IS DESTROYED.

2.57. UNTIL YOU KNOW THIS SELF YOU WILL KEEP TAKING REBIRTH.

2.58. In what manner is the Self eternal?

2.59.

देहिनोऽस्मिन्यथा देहे कौमारं यौवनं जरा ।

तथा देहान्तरप्राप्तिर्धीरस्तत्र न मुह्यति ॥ १३ ॥

2.60. Just as the embodied Self has, in the body, childhood, youth and old age, so does it win another body. An intelligent man is not bewildered by it.

2.61. The embodied self is called ‘dehi’ (देहः अस्य अस्तीति देही). To this ‘dehi’ there is childhood, then there is youth, middle age, old age etc.

2.62. Even though these are different stages for the body, the Self remains constant and it is not born again when childhood ceases & youth begins.

2.63. In the same way when a body dies and another is gained by the Self, the Self remains the same.

2.64. An intelligent person – Dheera: is not bewildered by such changes including the new body.

2.65. यद्यपि आत्मविनाशनिमित्तो मोहो न सम्भवति नित्य आत्मा इति विजानतः

2.66. We get bewildered by cold, flu, sukham, dhukkam etc. Yet if we remain Dheera: it is impossible to be bewildered about death & rebirth.

2.67.

मात्रास्पर्शास्तु कौन्तेय शीतोष्णसुखदुःखदाः ।

आगमापायिनोऽनित्यास्तांस्तितिक्षस्व भारत ॥ १४ ॥

2.68. O son of Kunti! Contacts of senses with their objects cause cold and heat, pleasure and pain. These come and go. They are fleeting, O Bharata Prince! Endure them!

2.69. So, what happens to the one who endures cold, heat etc.?

2.70.

यं हि न व्यथयन्त्येते पुरुषं पुरुषर्षभ ।

समदुःखसुखं धीरं सोऽमृतत्वाय कल्पते ॥ १५ ॥

2.71. O Hero! The man whom these do not agitate, who is the same in pain and pleasure, and who is wise, becomes fit indeed for immortality.

2.72. Wise is the one to whom pain & pleasures are the same because he knows them as fleeting. He also knows elation & dejection are fleeting too.

2.73. The wise never relies on those impermenent things.

2.74. THE MYTH OF CREATION SHOULD BE BLASTED AND THEN ONLY CAN WE BE ABLE TO OVERCOME THESE ALIEN RELIGIONS.

2.75. Just as the embodied Self has, in the body, childhood, youth and old age, so does it win another body. An intelligent man is not bewildered by it.

2.76. The embodied self is called ‘dehi’ (देहः अस्य अस्तीति देही). To this ‘dehi’ there is childhood, then there is youth, middle age, old age etc.

2.77. Even though these are different stages for the body, the Self remains constant and it is not born again when childhood ceases & youth begins.

2.78. In the same way when a body dies and another is gained by the Self, the Self remains the same.

2.79. An intelligent person – Dheera: is not bewildered by such changes including the new body.

2.80. यद्यपि आत्मविनाशनिमित्तो मोहो न सम्भवति नित्य आत्मा इति विजानतः

2.81. We get bewildered by cold, flu, sukham, dhukkam etc. Yet if we remain Dheera: it is impossible to be bewildered about death & rebirth.

2.82.

मात्रास्पर्शास्तु कौन्तेय शीतोष्णसुखदुःखदाः ।

आगमापायिनोऽनित्यास्तांस्तितिक्षस्व भारत ॥ १४ ॥

2.83. O son of Kunti! Contacts of senses with their objects cause cold and heat, pleasure and pain. These come and go. They are fleeting, O Bharata Prince! Endure them!

2.84. So, what happens to the one who endures cold, heat etc.?

2.85.

यं हि न व्यथयन्त्येते पुरुषं पुरुषर्षभ ।

समदुःखसुखं धीरं सोऽमृतत्वाय कल्पते ॥ १५ ॥

2.86. O Hero! The man whom these do not agitate, who is the same in pain and pleasure, and who is wise, becomes fit indeed for immortality.

2.87. Wise is the one to whom pain & pleasures are the same because he knows them as fleeting. He also knows elation & dejection are fleeting too.

2.88. The wise never relies on those impermenent things.

2.89

नासतो विद्यते भावो नाभावो विद्यते सतः ।

उभयोरपि दृष्टोऽन्तस्त्वनयोस्तत्त्वदर्शिभिः ॥ १६ ॥

2.90. The unreal has no existence, the real never ceases to be. The truth about both of them has been realized by the seers.

2.91. न असतः अविद्यमानस्य शीतोष्णादेः सकारणस्य न विद्यते नास्ति भावो भवनम् अस्तिता ॥

2.92. The unreal ie. that which has no being, such as cold and heat as well as their cause, has no existence. On the face of it, it seems illogical.

2.93. But they are effects of some cause such as heat from fire. Without the cause the effect cannot come into existence.

2.94. So much so the effects such as heat and cold, per se, are unreal for their existence is dependent.

2.95. Take another example the pot. Close observation reveals that it has no existence apart from the clay of which it is made.

2.96. Therefore, all effects are unreal. In the same way transformation not being cognizable apart from their causes, are unreal.

2.97. All effects are unknown before their origin and they cease to be cognized after their destruction.

2.98. What did not exist before and does not exist after does not indeed exist in the middle! Their seeming existence is called UNREAL.

2.99. It may be asked: If the totality of causes and effects to be unreal, then there arises the contingency of absolute vaccuum.

2.100. Throughout the sphere of cognitive experience we have to deal with two cognitions (a) of the REAL & (b) of the unreal.

2.101. That alone is real whose cognition is not mutable ie. not prone to change.

2.102. Thus the distinction between the real and the unreal rests on cognitions (of whether a thing changes or not).

2.103. Throughout the sphere of experience 2 cognitions with an identical substratum are available to one and all.

2.104. But if you take a “blue lotus” this case is different in nature.

2.105. So right examples are the ‘pot is’, the ‘cloth is’ etc. throughout the sphere of cognitive experience.

2.106. You see the pot as well as the clay. You see the cloth as well as the yarn where the clay and yarn are the substratum.

2.107. Here the pot, cloth etc. are mutable and is demonstrable.

2.108. But not so in respect of the cognition of REALITY or SAT.

2.109. THEREFORE, BEING MUTABLE THE OBJECTS OF COGNITION OF POT AND THE LIKE ARE UNREAL.

2.110. BUT NOT SO IN RESPECT OF COGNITION OF THE REAL WHICH IS IMMUTABLE.

–> Next set of tweets