2G scam: PC-Raja meetings, PC’s letter to Raja, April 21,2008. Swamy exposes PC’s role.

http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.com/2011/11/2g-scam-pc-raja-meetings-pcs-letter-to.html

22.11.11

2G scam: PC-Raja meetings, PC’s letter to Raja, April 21,2008. Swamy exposes PC’s role.

Role of PC, guiltier than Raja, on three counts:1. Allowing fixed price licenses which later fetched even upto 13 times the licence price causing a loss of Rs. 1.76 lakh crores (the charge against accused Raja).

2. Allowing blacklisted firms (specified by Shivraj Patil then Home Minister) to enter telecom: Etisalat and Uninor — endangering national security interests

3. Allowing sale of licences (bypassing the 3-year lock-in period) by the backdoor of share ‘dilution’. Lifting corporate veil, the entire companies: Swan Telecom and Unitech get converted — control and ownership transferred — to Etisalat and Telenor (with dealings in Dubai/ISI and China respectively).

Missing minutes from files?

Documents on consultations between Chidambaram and Raja on 2G pricing

Nov. 22, 2011

Janata Party President Subramanian Swamy released documents at a press conference in Chennai on November 22, 2011 that throw light on consultations between then Union Finance Minister P. Chidambaram and Communications Minister A. Raja on the pricing of 2G spectrum. While one of them was a note titled ‘Spectrum Issues — Update’ from the Department of Economic Affairs of the Finance Ministry, the other was a letter from Mr. Chidambaram to Mr. Raja suggesting that they meet and discuss the issues and later present their conclusions to the Prime Minister.

chidambaramlettertoraja

Chidambaram guiltier than Raja, says Swamy

CHENNAI, November 23, 2011

Janata Party president Subramanian Swamy alleged that Union Minister P. Chidambaram was “more guilty” than the former Communications Minister, A. Raja, in the 2G spectrum allotment scam.

Releases document

Addressing a press conference here on Tuesday, he released a document dated July 4, 2008 from the Department of Economic affairs, Ministry of Finance, which, he said, would “demolish the Congress claim that Mr. Raja alone fixed the price and Mr. Chidambaram had no role.”

According to the document, “meetings took place between Finance Minister and Minister of Telecommunication on May 29, 2008, and June 12, 2008, to resolve outstanding issues relating to allocation and pricing of 2G and 2G spectrum bands.” Then “it has been agreed that the ‘base price’ shall be determined by taking the entry fee of Rs. 1,650 crore (determined in 2003-04) for pan-India operation of UASL licencees as the price of spectrum for 6.2 MHz of bandwidth for GSM operators.”

“Far lower”

Hence, Dr. Swamy contended that they acted together and fixed a price which was nothing but that fixed by the National Democratic Alliance Government in 2001. Thus the final price was far lower than what it would have fetched had it been auctioned.

Dr. Swamy also released a letter from Mr. Chidambaram to Mr. Raja on April 21, 2008, suggesting that they could “meet and discuss and reach some conclusions. These conclusions could then be presented to the Hon’ble Prime Minister.”

The letter says based on Mr. Raja’s “non-paper” on spectrum charges, the Finance Secretary had held discussions with the Secretary, Ministry of Communications and Information Technology.

Based on those discussions, Mr. Chidambaram enclosed a non-paper “containing our views relating to 2G spectrum and issues relating to 3G/WiMax spectrum” and suggested that after Mr. Raja examined it they could meet and discuss the issue.

“Equity dilution”

Dr. Swamy said Mr. Chidambaram allowed some companies to opt for “equity dilution” which was not permitted for three years. This had allowed some companies to get licences through a circuitous route. “What you are not permitted to do directly, you cannot do indirectly as well,” he asserted.

Also, even without telling Mr. Raja, two “blacklisted” companies were allowed to get licences by Mr. Chidambaram, Dr. Swamy added.

http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/article2651015.ece

Politics News | Updated Nov 23, 2011 at 12:30am IST

Chidambaram, Raja discussed 2G pricing: Swamy

CNN-IBN

Chennai: Janata Party President and 2G scam petitioner Subramanyam Swamy continues to bring out new facts against Home Minister P Chidambram in the 2G spectrum allocation scam.
Latest is a Finance Ministry note, which shows that a meeting took place between Chidambram who used to be the finance minister and former telecom minister A Raja on the controversial issue of spectrum pricing.

It states that on the 29th May 2008 and 12th June 2008, two meetings were held between Chidambram and Raja.

Swamy is using this statement to prove his case that Mr Chidambram was in agreement with the price that Raja had fixed as entry price.

“I am releasing these documents to demolish any argument that meeting between Chidambaram and Raja did not take place.

There is no ambiguity (that they met),” said Swamy, a petitioner in the case on the multi-crore scam, who has sought making Chidambaram a co-accused.

Releasing Finance Ministry documents dated July 4, 2008, he said at a press conference in Chennai that Chidambaram, then the Finance Minister, and Raja had agreed upon fixing the pricing of 2G spectrum.

The documents also show that they discussed spectrum usage charge and also the pricing for 3G bandwidth. The new 2G licences were distributed in January, 2008 by Raja who is facing prosecution.

“It has been agreed that the base price of 2G spectrum shall be determined by taking the entry fee of Rs 1,650 crore determined in 2003-04 for pan-India operation of UASL licensees as a price of spectrum for 6.2 mhz of bandwidth for GSM operators”, the document said.
This was the 2001 rate adopted by NDA government, Swamy said.

“The document shows it (pricing) was an agreement. It comes clear,” he said and claimed the two had met four times.

Swamy said he will file these documents before the court in Delhi on December 3 when the case comes up for hearing.

Asked if Chidambaram should resign, he replied in the affirmative.

(With additional information from PTI)

http://ibnlive.in.com/news/chidambaram-raja-discussed-2g-pricing-swamy/204774-37-64.html

Chidambaram, Raja acted together in 2G scam: Subramanian Swamy

By ANI | ANI – 12 hours ago

New Delhi, Nov 22 (ANI): Founder-President of the Janata Party (JP) and a key petitioner in 2G scam case, Subramanian Swamy, revealed a finance ministry document claiming that former Telecom Minister A. Raja and Home Minister P. Chidambaram were joint partners in the multi-billion dollar scam.

Addressing mediapersons here, Swamy said: “I am demolishing the idea that the price of spectrum was determined by A. Raja alone. I am showing that this document proves that it was decided jointly. And not only jointly, they (Raja and Chidambaram) met several times. Here it is two times but in the total they met four times. And therefore I think as far as this document is concerned, it completely demolishes the argument that Raja has acted alone. Raja and Chidambaram acted together to deprive the country of huge amount to revenue.”

Refusing to reveal the origin of this latest document, Swamy said that Chidambaram was the most crooked minister in the country, adding that he would urge the trial court in its next hearing on December 3, to make Chidambaram a co-accused in the case.

“December 3, the trial court is meeting to consider my arguments, whether Chidambaram should be made a co-accused with Raja. And I will be arguing that if Raja is accused, then Chidambaram is ten times more accused. He is more guilty; he is the most crooked minister in the country,” he added.

Chidambaram has been at the centre of an extensive political storm ever since certain reports revealed of his alleged role in ‘deciding’ the prices of 2G-spectrum during his earlier tenure as the Finance Minister, thus embroiling him in the telecom scam.

His name cropped up in a recent letter of Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee addressed to Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, in which Mukherjee blamed his predecessor for not sticking to the established procedures in auctioning of the 2-G spectrum.

The letter stated that sufficient steps were not taken by Chidambaram to prevent the colossal scam from occurring in the first place, considering he could have ‘stuck to the stand’ of auctioning of the precious spectrum instead of giving it at throwaway prices.

The telecom scam, one of India’s biggest graft cases ever, may have cost 39.57 billion dollars in revenue to the public exchequer as per the Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG).

A. Raja was sacked in November last year and later arrested after being charged with giving away telecom licences in 2008 for a pittance, at meagre prices of 2001 in the CAG report. Raja is presently facing trial along with a group of telecom executives and DMK lawmaker Kanimozhi. (ANI)

http://in.news.yahoo.com/chidambaram-raja-acted-together-2g-scam-subramanian-swamy-113626573.html

See:

http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.com/2011/11/swamy-says-chidambaram-raja-discussed.html

Chidambaram, Raja discussed 2G pricing: Subramanian Swamy

PTI | Nov 22, 2011, 05.01PM IST

CHENNAI: Janata Party president Subramanian Swamy today released a set of documents to prove that Union home minister P Chidambaram discussed with former telecom minister A Raja in may-June 2008 the issue of pricing of the 2G Spectrum at 2001 rates.

Releasing finance ministry documents dated July 4, 2008, he told a press conference here that Chidambaram, then the finance minister, and Raja had agreed upon fixing the pricing of 2G spectrum.

The documents also show that they discussed spectrum usage charge and also the pricing for 3G bandwidth. The new 2G licences were distributed in January, 2008 by Raja who is facing prosecution.

“I am releasing these documents to demolish any argument that meeting between Chidambaram and Raja did not take place. There is no ambiguity (that they met),” said Swamy, a petitioner in the case on the multi-crore scam, who has sought making Chidambaram a co-accused.

“It has been agreed that the base price of 2G spectrum shall be determined by taking the entry fee of Rs 1,650 crore determined in 2003-04 for pan-India operation of UASL licensees as a price of spectrum for 6.2 mhz of bandwidth for GSM operators”, the document said.

This was the 2001 rate adopted by NDA government, Swamy said.

“The document shows it (pricing) was an agreement. It comes clear,” he said and claimed the two had met four times.

Swamy said he will file these documents before the court in Delhi on December 3 when the case comes up for hearing.

Asked if Chidambaram should resign, he replied in the affirmative.

http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Chidambaram-Raja-discussed-2G-pricing-Subramanian-Swamy/articleshow/10829824.cms

Swamy says Chidambaram, Raja discussed 2G pricing

22 Nov 2011, 1705 hrs IST, AGENCIES

Janata Party President Subramanian Swamy today released a set of documents to prove that Union Home Minister P Chidambaram discussed with former Telecom Minister A Raja in may-June 2008 the issue of pricing of the 2G Spectrum at 2001 rates.

Releasing Finance Ministry documents dated July 4, 2008, he told a press conference in Chennai that Chidambaram, then the Finance Minister, and Raja had agreed upon fixing the pricing of 2G spectrum.

The documents also show that they discussed spectrum usage charge and also the pricing for 3G bandwidth. The new 2G licences were distributed in January, 2008 by Raja who is facing prosecution.

“I am releasing these documents to demolish any argument that meeting between Chidambaram and Raja did not take place. There is no ambiguity (that they met),” said Swamy, a petitioner in the case on the multi-crore scam, who has sought making Chidambaram a co-accused.

“It has been agreed that the base price of 2G spectrum shall be determined by taking the entry fee of Rs 1,650 crore determined in 2003-04 for pan-India operation of UASL licensees as a price of spectrum for 6.2 mhz of bandwidth for GSM operators”, the document said.

This was the 2001 rate adopted by NDA government, Swamy said.

“The document shows it (pricing) was an agreement. It comes clear,” he said and claimed the two had met four times.

Swamy said he will file these documents before the court in Delhi on December 3 when the case comes up for hearing.

Asked if Chidambaram should resign, he replied in the affirmative.

http://www.timesnow.tv/Swamy-says-Chidambaram-Raja-discussed-2G-pricing/articleshow/4389595.cms

Chidambaram, Raja acted together in 2G scam: Subramanian Swamy

NDTV Correspondent, Updated: November 22, 2011 14:13 IST
http://www.ndtv.com/article/india/chidambaram-raja-acted-together-in-2g-scam-subramanian-swamy-152009?pfrom=home-otherstories

See: http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.com/2011/11/2g-scam-paper-hammer-strikes-again.html

http://www.docstoc.com/docs/104462661/Raja-Chidambaram-meeting-minutes-July-4-2008

Raja-Chidambaram meeting minutes July 4, 2008

Advertisements

2G Scam: CAG digs in his heels: it’s Rs. 1.76 lakh crore

Published: November 15, 2011 15:52 IST | Updated: November 16, 2011 01:28 IST

B. Muralidhar Reddy

In a staunch defence of the calculation of Rs. 1.76-lakh crore presumptive loss to the exchequer on account of the award of 2G spectrum in 2008 at the prices of 2001, the Comptroller and Auditor-General on Tuesday argued that a strong case for revision of prices was made by the Union Finance Ministry and concurred with by the Prime Minister’s Office (PMO).

In a PowerPoint presentation to the Joint Parliamentary Committee, which is examining the telecom policy from 1998 to 2009, CAG Vinod Rai dwelt at length on the criteria adopted by his office in calculating the presumptive loss. He pointed out that the Finance Ministry and the PMO, in their separate communications in 2007, recommended revision of the methodology adopted by the Department of Telecommunications (DoT).

The nearly six-hour presentation, followed by a question and answer session, came a day after the then Director-General (Post &Telegraph) in the CAG, R.P. Singh, explained the basis on which he had pegged the ‘actual loss’ at Rs. 2,645 crore.

Mr. Rai said Mr. Singh, in the same note in which he calculated the loss at Rs. 2645 crore, also gave some estimations of loss for further consideration such as Rs.10,2000 crore and Rs.65,000 crore. In his May 31, 2010 letter addressed to the CAG, Mr. Singh suggested that further audit be carried out if required.

The presumptive loss of Rs. 1.76 lakh crore, in the final report in 2010, has been a subject of intense debate for several months with senior leaders of the ruling UPA contending that the CAG has overstepped its mandate by getting into a policy matter while its role is restricted to audit.

Quoting from the noting in the Finance Ministry files, Mr. Rai told the JPC that if spectrum were to be priced, the option before the DoT was auction or charging a market-determined price. “While the MoF [Ministry of Finance] gave two parameters for calculating the value of spectrum, neither was conclusively suggested. If so, how can the government itself thereafter orchestrate a “no loss” hypothesis?”

Communications Minister Kapil Sibal asserted, days after he took charge of the Ministry following the resignation of A. Raja, that there was ‘zero loss’ to the exchequer. In one of the notings in 2007, the Finance Ministry had maintained that economically there would be a case for increasing the entry fee for technology crossover and said the entry fee could be calculated on the base of the 2001 auction price weighed with the improvement in technology, and demand in terms of subscribers as well as per subscriber traffic.

Three-stage audit

Mr. Rai told the committee that different loss figures were projected in the three-stage audit process of the CAG. The Field Audit Report carried figures of Rs.48,000 crore and Rs.26,000 crore.

It was redrafted by the office of DG (P&T) and figures of Rs. 2,645 crore, Rs. 2,651crore and Rs.36,000 crore were incorporated in the report. The office also mentioned figures of Rs.1,02,000 crore and Rs. 65,000 crore.

In stage III of the audit done by the CAG headquarters after examination of ‘records not available earlier’, a range of figures from Rs. 58,000 crore to Rs.1, 76,000 crore emerged.

Elaborating on the term ‘presumptive,’ Mr. Rai said it was a term which was part of the Direct Tax Code, and the Income Tax Code recognised and used the terms ‘presumptive income’ and ‘presumptive tax’. Further, it was the normal practice of the office of the CAG to cite figures on the basis of presumptive losses.

On the criticism that the CAG had overstepped its mandate in preparation of the 2G spectrum report, Mr. Rai said the report only sought to examine implementation of the policy. “The entire implementation process does not withstand the test of scrutiny, and hence, the widely held belief that it has benefited a few operators and has not been able to maximise generation of revenue from allocation of such a scarce resource.”

The CAG said an adversarial role between Audit and the Executive was inherent in the structure of polity. There was a difference in the oaths of a Cabinet Minister and the CAG: A Cabinet Minister takes the oath to conscientiously discharge his duties as Minster for the Union and to do right to all manner of people in accordance with the Constitution and the law. The CAG takes the oath that he will, duly and faithfully and to the best of his ability, knowledge and judgment, perform the duties of his office and uphold the Constitution and the laws.

http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/article2629791.ece

Goat and fish as hieroglyphs of Indus script: Susa-Meluhha interactions. Meluhhan interpreter ‘may have been literate and could read the undeciphered Indus script.’

Update: Nov. 21, 2011

Susa-Meluhha interactions
http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.com/2011/11/mohenjo-daro-stupa-great-bath-modeled.htmlThis blogpost notes that the ziggurat shown on the Sit-Shamshi bronze compares with a ziggurat which might have existed in the Stupa mound of Mohenjodaro (lit. mound of the dead), indicating the veneration of ancestors in Susa and Meluhha in contemporaneous times.

 

continue reading this at http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.com/2011/11/susa-ritual-basin-decorated-with.html

Chidambaram, Raja discussed 2G pricing: Subramanian Swamy

CHENNAI: Janata Party president Subramanian Swamy today released a set of documents to prove that Union home minister P Chidambaram discussed with former telecom minister A Rajain may-June 2008 the issue of pricing of the 2G Spectrum at 2001 rates.Releasing finance ministry documents dated July 4, 2008, he told a press conference here that Chidambaram, then the finance minister, and Raja had agreed upon fixing the pricing of 2G spectrum.

The documents also show that they discussed spectrum usage charge and also the pricing for 3G bandwidth. The new 2G licences were distributed in January, 2008 by Raja who is facing prosecution.

“I am releasing these documents to demolish any argument that meeting between Chidambaram and Raja did not take place. There is no ambiguity (that they met),” said Swamy, a petitioner in the case on the multi-crore scam, who has sought making Chidambaram a co-accused.

“It has been agreed that the base price of 2G spectrum shall be determined by taking the entry fee of Rs 1,650 crore determined in 2003-04 for pan-India operation of UASL licensees as a price of spectrum for 6.2 mhz of bandwidth for GSM operators”, the document said.

This was the 2001 rate adopted by NDA government, Swamy said.

“The document shows it (pricing) was an agreement. It comes clear,” he said and claimed the two had met four times.

Swamy said he will file these documents before the court in Delhi on December 3 when the case comes up for hearing.

Asked if Chidambaram should resign, he replied in the affirmative.

See video of Dr.Swamy’s press conference

http://www.ndtv.com/video/player/news/chidambaram-met-raja-to-fix-2g-pricing-subramanian-swamy/216698

Raja’s 2G note: Subramanian Swamy seeks action against Chidambaram

http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.com/2011/11/rajas-2g-note-subramanian-swamy-seeks.html

18.11.11
Raja’s 2G note: Subramanian Swamy seeks action against Chidambaram

AATISH SRIVASTAVA | New Delhi, November 18, 2011 | 13:31

Janata Party president Subramanian Swamy.

The main petitioner in 2G scam case, Janata Party president Subramanian Swamy, on Friday called the dilution of equities by the original license holders — Unitech and Swan Telecom, a “sham transaction” in the name of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI).

Reacting to a 2G note written by former telecom minister A. Raja to then telecom secretary in November 2008 highlighted by Headlines Today, Swamy said, “I think there is one crucial paragraph in the note you have shown which I can testify is a genuine note because it’s there in my file that I got from the CBI.”

“Raja says let this telecom commission also consider this. Now the telecom commission proceedings, the minutes all further prove that it is the finance ministry which was pushing for this share dilution concept.”

“Here are two companies, real estate companies. They don’t have a single tower, they don’t have any telecom equipment. They get a license. And two very well-established, even if they are black-listed, foreign companies want to buy shares of this company which are a paid-up capital of small amount and has no assets except spectrum license.”

“This is a sham transaction in the name of share dilution. This is not a question of bringing a foreign direct investment. It is a question of how to get their hand on the license which otherwise they could have never got because they are black-listed,” Swamy said.

He claimed that this act of then finance minister P. Chidambaram comes under the provisions of Prevention of Corruption Act (PCA).

“So the note has actually pointed out the dilemma of Raja. The prime minister got concerned so he wanted a meeting and it is Mr Chidambaram who was the author of this whole thing. And that’s where the provision of Prevention of Corruption Act starts,” he said.

Swamy expressed surprise at why the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) was acting like an ostrich in this case.

http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/2g-scam-chidambaram-subramnian-swamy-raja-note/1/160532.html

Raja’s 2G note says Chidambaram okayed selling of stakes by Unitech, Swan

HEADLINES TODAY BUREAU | New Delhi, November 18, 2011 | 12:56

P. Chidambaram was the finance minister during the 2G spectrum allocation.

An internal note, written by former telecom minister A. Raja to then telecom secretary, which could indict Home Minister P. Chidambaram and draw even Prime Minister Manmohan Singh in the 2G spectrum allocation scam mess, has been accessed by Headlines Today.

In the note, Raja claims that Chidambaram as finance minister gave his nod to the dilution of stake in Unitech and Swan Telecom. It claims that this happened in the presence of the prime minister.

In the letter dated November 5, 2008, Raja wrote: “Since some misleading articles are written in the media about the issuance of new licenses and spectrum allocation, more specifically in the case of Swan Telecom and Unitech Telecom, the matter was discussed with honourable prime minister and honourable finance minister as I observed in a press conference at Chennai.”

“In the meeting honourable finance minister clarified that dilution of shares to attract foreign investment for business expansion did not amount to sale of licence and as such these companies did their share dilution as per corporate laws,” the note says.

At the time of selling stake, both Swan Telecom and Unitech Telecom did not have any assets other then licenses which they had acquired. Both Swan Telecom and Unitech Group were allotted a license each for around Rs 1,600 crore.

Months later, Swan sold 45 per cent of equity to Etisalat for a whopping Rs 4,200 crore. Unitech almost instantly sold 60 per cent of its stake for Rs 6,200 crore to Telenor. Stake sales by these companies at such high prices clearly showed how the government sold licenses at throwaway prices.

The special court had earlier directed the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) to provide documents related to “equity dilution” by telecom operators that were allotted telecom licenses in 2008 to Janata Party chief Subramanian Swamy, who also happens to be the main petitioner in the case.

URL for this article :
http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/2g-scam-raja-chidambaram-unitech-swan-telecom-stakes/1/160528.html

CBI accused of influencing 2G scam witness

MAIL TODAY BUREAU | New Delhi, November 18, 2011 | 11:44

A special court has asked the CBI to respond to allegations that it is trying to influence witnesses in the 2G scam trial.

Special CBI judge O.P. Saini issued notice to the CBI seeking its response by November 23 on a plea filed by Vinod Goenka, a director of Swan Telecom and an accused. “What has surfaced in the evidence of PW 2 (Reliance Group chief A.N. Sethuraman) is alarming and amounts to (influencing) the witness. Action needs to be taken to abort this unhealthy practice,” Goenka’s counsel wrote in an application.

Sethuraman had told the court that two days before the 2G trial began, a CBI officer had called him over 10 times to persuade him to come to the agency’s office, but had not made an entry in the reception register.

“This was done in the name of refreshing his memory,” Goenka’s counsel said.

http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/cbi-accused-of-influencing-2g-scam-witness/1/160514.html

Interference in the functioning of various ministries by Ms. Anushka Vinci and Ms. Nadia (sisters of Sonia G) – Swamy’s letter to PM

November 18, 2011.

Dr. Manmohan Singh,
Prime Minister of India,
South Block,
New Delhi.

Dear Prime Minister:

I write this letter to inform you that well-placed members of your Government have expressed to me in confidence their disgust and sorrow at the open interference into the functioning of various Ministries by the two sisters of Ms Sonia Gandhi, namely, Ms Anushka Vinci and Ms Nadia who are Italians citizens but now frequently reside in 10, Janpath, New Delhi which premises had been allotted to their sister Ms Sonia Gandhi.

The problem is the undue and uncalled for interference by these two ladies. This has national security implications since not only they are citizens of a foreign country (Italy) but their activities in Dubai and London reveal their contacts with unsavoury and anti-Indian characters. Their mode of travel by private jet which are owned by dubious characters accentuate the national security threat. As you know that the conditions of their Indian visa do not permit these activities and in fact warrant the cancellation of their visas.

Hence I request you to make a suitable enquiry by officers of RAW and Intelligence Bureau who are known not to have improper proximity with the family of Ms Sonia Gandhi and her siblings. I strongly urge you to see that these ladies be deported from India to Italy if they continue such activities.

Best Regards,
Yours sincerely,

( SUBRAMANIAN SWAMY )

Diabetes: Tales of bitter truth

Last Updated : 16 Nov 2011 11:38:49 AM IST

 

Over 50 million, India has the highest number of diabetics in the world.

According to a latest report by World Health Organisation (WHO), more than 80 per cent of deaths from diabetes-related complication occur in low and middle-income countries.Dr Rangesh Paramesh, Head Drug Discovery, The Himalaya Drug Company shares with us the benefits of karela (bitter gourd).There are currently two types of diabetes-Type I and Type II. Type I (insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or juvenile diabetes) is an auto-immune disorder, in which the body is unable to produce insulin.In Type II (non-insulin dependent adult-onset Diabetes or NIDDM), the pancreas produces insulin but is insufficient for reducing the blood glucose levels to normal.Type I diabetes is not preventable and it is in no way the result of a person’s lifestyle. The onset of Type II diabetes in pre-diabetics, on the other hand, can be prevented with regular exercise, weight loss and a healthy diet.For diabetics, it is extremely important to keep better control of their blood sugar levels.Certain natural foods and herbs are helpful in this condition. Amongst them, bitter gourd is reported to be extremely beneficial. Also known as Bitter Melon, Karela is a tropical vegetable, widely available in the Indian subcontinent. It is cultivated and sold while the vegetable is still green or in the early yellowing stages.Bitter gourd is a popular vegetable in India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka where it is eaten as a stir-fry with potatoes to offset the bitter flavor. As per doctrine of signature Bitter gourd is linked with the activity of pancreas (that secretes insulin) since it resembles in shape and contour of this organ of importance in diabetes.Lately, bitter gourd has come into the spotlight for its natural blood sugar-lowering properties.The vegetable has a host of chemical constituents that denote its hypoglycemic properties. The seeds contain ‘plantinsulin’ or peptides resembling insulin that also works like natural insulin secreted from the human pancreatic glands.Charantin and momordicin, two key compounds in bitter gourd, are also credited with anti-diabetic properties.The vegetable’s antioxidant agents help in reducing diabetic related complications by scavenging free radicals.