by Ibrahim Lone
17 Nov, 2008
A lot has been said about the peace and prosperity that was abound in India during the Islamic Rule. Even British historians in their zeal to win over Muslims as their allies distorted the true history of the Indian subcontinent under Muslim rule. Apparently most Islamic nations including the breakaway nations of Pakistan and Bangladesh report a distorted version of Indian history under the Muslim rule. In this fabricated version of Islamic History India every attempt has been made by Muslim to portray Muslim rulers as great Secularist, which is an oxymoron in itself, compared to the native Indian kings who are portrayed as Cowards and incestuous rulers.
Wole Soyinka, African Nobel Laureate, while delivering the 20th Nehru Memorial Lecture on November 13, 1988, made an important, though by no means a new, observation that the colonial histories have been written from the European viewpoint. Speaking about Indian histories, he said that there is a big question mark on everything that the British historians have written. He added that serious efforts are being made by historians back home to rewrite African history. Perhaps the time has come to rewrite the true Indian history but by historians of the subcontinent. Thanks to the attitude of Indian politicians and leftist historians, who dominate the scene, no effort has been made to unearth the true history is Islamic rule. Even the mere mention of the excess committed by Muslims on the natives is considered as non-Kosher. However thanks to Internet Forums such as FFI and Islam-Watch, the truth can finally be told and it is the truth that will eventually set us free. The barbarities of Muslim rulers cover no bounds. The Islamic rule in India covers large number of topics and a span of almost 700 years. It is not possible to cover all of these in one article. I will, therefore, break up my presentation into a series of articles which will cover various topics.
It is common knowledge that, if you want to break a people, all you have to do is to attack their belief system. This was precisely the objective of Muslim rulers who came to India. The best way to undermine the Hindus and Buddhists in their own country was to destroy their Temples and Viharas and this is exactly what the Muslim rulers did.
There are several books in which the Muslim scholars of yore have recorded the barbarism of the Muslim rulers; they devoted scrolls of paper to prove the destruction of the native Indian psyche. Of course, the Muslim theologians of today don’t put these treatises on display for they might just demolish the beautiful picture of Islam they paint in front of the world. So I will not give any arguments of my own, rather I will let the history written by the Muslim scholars themselves do the talking.
The literary evidence stated below is in chronological order with reference to the time at which a particular work was written. Below I have listed the sources of my information, the authors of the treatises and the exact quotes from their books.
Name Of The Book: Hindustan Islami Ahad mein (India under Islamic Rule)
Name Of The Historian: Maulana Abdul Hai.
About The Author: He is a highly respected scholar and taken as an authority on Islamic history. Because ofhis scholarship and his services to Islam, Maulana Abdul Hai was appointed as the Rector of the DarulNadwa Ullum Nadwatal-Ulama. He continued in that post till his death in February 1923.
The following section is taken from the chapter Hindustan ki Masjidein (The mosques of India) of the above-mentioned book. Here we can see a brief description of a few important mosques in India and how each one of them was built upon plundered Hindu temples.
1. Qawwat al-Islam Mosque at Delhi:
“According to my findings the first mosque of Delhi is Qubbat al-Islam or Quwwat al_Islam which, Qutubud-Din Aibak constructed in H. 587 after demolishing the hindu temple built by Prithvi Raj and leaving certain parts of the temple outside the mosque proper; and when he returned from Ghazni in H. 592 he started building, under orders from Shihabud -Din Ghori, a huge mosque of inimitable red stones, and certain parts of the temple were included in the mosque…”
2. The Mosque at Jaunpur:
“This was built by Sultan Ibrahim Sharqi with chiseled stones. Originally it was a Hindu temple after demolishing which he constructed the mosque. It is known as the Atala Masjid..”
3. The Mosque at Qanauj:
“It is well known that this mosque was built on the foundations of some Hindu temple that stood here. The mosque was built by Ibrahim Sharqi in H. 809 as is recorded in Gharbat Nigar”
4. Jami Masjid at Etwah:
“This mosque stands on the bank of the Jamuna at Etawah. There was a Hindu temple at this place, on the site of which this mosque was constructed..”
5. Babri Masjid at Ayodhya:
“This mosque was constructed by Babar at Ayodhya which Hindus call the birth place of Ramchandraji…Sita had a temple here in which she lived and cooked for her husband. On that very site Babar constructed this mosque in H. 963 “
6. Mosque at Benaras:
“Mosque of Benares was built by Alamgir Aurangzeb on the site of Bisheshwar Temple. That temple was very tall and held as holy among Hindus. On this very site and with those very stones he constructed a lofty mosque, and its ancient stones were rearranged after being embedded in the walls of the mosque. It is one of the renowned mosques of Hindustan.”
7. Mosque at Mathura:
“Alamgir Aurangzeb built a mosque at Mathura. This mosque was built on site of the Govind Dev Temple which was very strong and beautiful as well as exquisite..”
Name Of The Book: Futuhu’l-Buldan
Name Of The Historian: Ahmed bin Yahya bin Jabir
About The Author: This author is also known as al- Biladhuri. He lived at the court of Khalifa Al- Mutawakkal (AD 847-861) and died in AD 893. His history is one of the major Arab chronicles.
The Muslim Rulers He Wrote About:
1. Ibn Samurah (AD 653) Siestan (Iran)
“On reaching Dawar, he surrounded the enemy in the mountain of Zur, where there was a famous Hindu temple. …Their idol of Zur was of gold, and its eyes were two rubies. The zealous Musalmans cut off its hands and plucked out its eyes, and then remarked to the Marzaban how powerless was his idol…”
2. Qutaibah bin Muslim al-Bahili (r. 705-715) Samarkand (Farghana)
“Other authorities say that Kutaibah granted peace for 700,000 dirhams and entertainment for the Moslems for three days. The terms of surrender included also the houses of the idols and the fire temples. The idols were thrown out, plundered of their ornaments and burned…”
3. Mohammed bin Qasim (r. 712-715) Debal (Sindh)
“…The town was thus taken by assault, and the carnage endured for three days. The governor of the town, appointed by Dahir, fled and the priests of the temple were massacred. Muhammad marked a place for the Musalmans to dwell in, built a mosque, and left 4,000 Musalmans to garrison the place…”
“…’Ambissa son of Ishak Az Zabbi, the governor of Sindh, in the Khilafat of Mu’tasim billah knocked down the upper part of the minaret of the temple and converted it into a prison…”
“…He then crossed the Biyas, and went towards Multan…Muhammad destroyed the water-course; upon which the inhabitants, oppressed with thirst, surrendered at discretion. He massacred the men capable of bearing arms, but the children were taken captive, as well as ministers of the temple, to the number of 6,000. The Musalmans found there much gold in a chamber ten cubits long by eight broad…”
4. Hasham bin ‘Amru al-Taghlab Khandahar (Maharashtra)
“He then went to Khandahar in boats and conquered it. He destroyed the Budd (idol) there, and built in its place a mosque.”
Name Of The Book: Tarikh-i-Tabari
Name Of The Historian: Abu Ja’far Muhammad bin Jarir at-Tabari
About The Author: This author is considered to be the foremost historian of Islam. The above mentioned book written by him is regarded as the mother of histories.
The Muslim Rulers He Wrote About:
1. Qutaibah bin Muslim al-Bahili (AD 705-715) Beykund (Khurasan)
“The ultimate capture of Beykund (in AD 706) rewarded him with an incalculable booty; even more than had hitherto fallen into the hands of the Mohammedans by the conquest of the entire province of Khorassaun; and the unfortunate merchants of the town, having been absent on a trading excursion while their countrywas assailed by the enemy, and finding their habitations desolate on their return contributed further to enrich the invaders, by the ransom which they paid for the recovery of their wives and children. The ornaments alone, of which these women had been plundered, being melted down, produce, in gold, 150,000 meskals; of a dram and a half each. Among the articles of the booty, is also described an image of gold, of 50,000 meskals, of which the eyes were two pearls, the exquisite beauty and magnitude of which excited the surprise and admiration of Kateibah. They were transmitted by him, with a fifth of the spoil to Hejauje, together with a request that he might be permitted to distribute, to the troops, the arms which had been found in the palace in great profusion.”
Samarkand (Farghan “A breach was, however, at last effected in the walls of the city in AD 712 by the warlike machines ofKateibah; and some of the most daring of its defenders having fallen by the skill of his archers, the besieged demanded a cessation of arms to the following day, when they promised to capitulate. The request was acceded to the Kateibah; and a treaty was the next day accordingly concluded between him and the prince of Samarkand, by which the latter engaged for the annual payment of ten million of dhirems, and a supply of three thousand slaves; of whom it was particularly stipulated, that none should either be in a state of infancy, or ineffective from old age and debility. He further contracted that the ministers of his religion should be expelled from their temples and their idols destroyed and burnt; that Kateibah should be allowed to establish a mosque in the place of the principal temple….”
“…Kateibah accordingly set set fire to the whole collection with his own hands; it was soon consumed to ashes, and 50,000 meskals of gold and silver, collected from the nails which had been used in the workmanship of the images.”
2. Yaqub bin Laith (r. 870-871 Balkh and Kabul (Afghanistan)
“He took Bamian, which he probably reached by way of Herat, and then marched on Balkh where he ruined (the temple) Naushad. On his way back from Balkh he attacked Kabul…”
“Starting from Panjhir, the place he is known to have visited, he must have passed through the capital city of the Hindu Sahis to rob the sacred temple — the reputed place of coronation of the Sahi rulers — of its sculptural wealth…”
“The exact details of the spoil collected from Kabul valley are lacking. The Tarikh [-i-Sistan] records 50 idols of gold and silver and Mas’udi mentions elephants. The wonder excited in Baghdad by Baghdad by elephants and pagan idols forwarded to the Caliph by Ya’qub also speaks for their high value.”
Name Of The Book: Tarikhu’l-Hind
Name Of The Historian: Abu Rihan Muhammad bin Ahmad al-Biruni al-Khwarizmi.
About The Author: This author spent 40 years in India during the reign of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni (r. 997-1030). His history treats of the literature and learning of the Hindus at the commencement of the 11th century.
The Muslim Rulers He Wrote About:
1. Jalam ibn Shaiban (9th century) Multan (Punjab)
“A famous idol of theirs was that of Multan, dedicated to the sun, and therefore called Aditya. It was of wood and covered with red Cordovan leather; in its two eyes were two red rubies. It is said to have been made in the last Kritayuga …..When Muhammad Ibn Alkasim Ibn Almunaibh conquered Multan, he inquired how the town had become so very flourishing and so many treasures had there been accumulated, and then he found out that this idol was the cause, for there came pilgrims from all sides to visit it. Therefore he thought it best to have the idol where it was, but he hung a piece of cow’s flesh on its neck by way of mockery. On the same place a mosque was built. When the Karmatians occupied Multan, Jalam Ibn Shaiban, the usurper, broke the idol into pieces and killed its priests…”
2. Sultan Mahmud of Gazni (AD 997-103 Thanesar (Haryana)
“The city of Taneshar is highly venerated by Hindus. The idol of that place is called Cakrasvamin, i.e. the owner of the cakra, a weapon which we have already described. It is of bronze, and is nearly the size of a man. It is now lying in the hippodrome in Ghazna, together with the Lord of Somnath, which is a representation of the penis of the Mahadeva, called Linga.”
3. Somnath (Gujrat)
“The linga he raised was the stone of Somnath, for soma means the moon and natan means master, so that the whole word means master of the moon. The image was destroyed by the Prince Mahmud, may God be merciful to him! –AH 416. He ordered the upper part to be broken and the remainder to be transported to his residence, Ghaznin, with all its coverings and trappings of gold, jewels, and embroidered garments. Part of it has been thrown into the hippodrome of the town, together with Cakrasvamin , an idol of bronze, that had been brought from Taneshar. Another part of the idol from Somnath lies before the door of the mosque of Ghaznin, on which people rub their feet to clean them from dirt and wet.”
Name Of The Book: Kitabu’l-Yamini
Name Of The Historian: Abu Nasr Muhammad ibn Muhammad al Jabbaru’l-Utbi.
About The Author: This author’s work comprises the whole of the reign of Subuktigin and that of Sultan Mahmud down to the year AD 1020.
The Muslim Rulers He Wrote About:
1. Amir Sbuktigin of Ghazni Lamghan (Afghanistan)
“The Amir marched out towards Lamghan, which is a city celebrated for its great strength and abounding wealth. He conquered it and set fire to the places in its vicinity which were inhabited by infidels, and demolishing idol temples, he established Islam in them. He marched and captured other cities and killed the polluted wretches, destroying the idolaters and gratifying the Musulmans.”
2. Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni (AD 997-1030) Narain (Rajasthan)
“The Sultan again resolved on an expedition to Hind, and marched towards Narain, urging his horses and moving over ground, hard and soft, until he came to the middle of Hind, where he reduced chiefs, who, up to that time obeyed no master, overturned their idols, put to the sword the vagabonds of that country, and with delay and circumspection proceeded to accomplish his design…”
3. Nardin (Punjab)
“After the Sultan had purified Hind from idolatry, and raised mosques therein, he determined to invade the capital of Hind to punish those who kept idols and would not acknowledge the unity of God…He marched with a large army in the year AH 404 (AD 1013) during a dark night…”
“A stone was found there in the temple of the great Budda on which an inscription was written purporting that the temple had been founded 50,000 years ago. The Sultan was surprised at the ignorance of these people, because those who believe in the true faith represent that only seven hundred years have elapsed since the creation of the world, and the signs of resurrection are even now approaching .The Sultan asked his wise men the meaning of this inscription and they all concurred in saying that it was false, and no faith was to be put in the evidence of a stone.”
4. Thanesar (Haryana)
“The chief of Tanesar was…obstinate in his infidelity and denial of God. So the Sultan marched against him with his valiant warriors, for the purpose of planting the standards of Islam and extirpating idolatry..”
“The blood of the infidels flowed so copiously, that the stream was discolored, not withstanding its purity, and people were unable to drink it…The victory gained by God’s grace, who has established Islam for ever as the best religions, notwithstanding that idolaters revolt against it…Praise be to God, the protector of the world, for the honor he bestows upon Islam and Musulmans.”
5. Mathura (Uttar Pradesh)
“The Sultan then departed from the environs of the city, in which was a temple of the Hindus. The name of this place was Mahartul Hind… On both sides of the city there were a thousand houses, to which idol temples were attached, all strengthened from top to bottom by rivets of iron, and all made of masonry work…”
“In the middle of the city there was a temple larger and firmer than the rest, which can neither be described nor painted. The Sultan thus wrote respecting it: –‘If any should wish to construct a building equal to this, he would not be able to do it without expending an 100,000,000 red dinars, and it would occupy 200 years even though the most experience and able workmen were employed’… The Sultan gave orders that all temples should be burnt with naptha and fire, and leveled with the ground.”
6. Kanauj (Uttar Pradesh)
“In Kanauj there were nearly 10,000 temples, which the idolaters falsely and absurdly represented to have been founded by their ancestors two or three hundred thousand years ago…Many of the inhabitants of the place fled and were scattered abroad like so many wretched widows and orphans, from the fear which oppressed them, in consequence of witnessing the fate of their deaf and dumb idols. Many of them thus affected their escape, and those who did not fly were put to death.”
I rest my case here and allow the readers to judge the facts for themselves.
Also read the Travels of Ibn Battuta for more information on the issue of Islamic Rule in India.