Remains of pre-Ashokan shrines from 1300 BCE found in Lumbini, Nepal

 

Kathmandu, Jul 7 (PTI) New excavations have unearthed ruins of a thriving village with a shrine in Lumbini, the birthplace of Lord Buddha in Nepal, more than a thousand years before Emperor Ashoka built monuments there to spread Buddhism.

“We have now very robust proof that Lumbini”s history extends far before the visit of Emperor Ashoka. The government of Nepal will step-up efforts to preserve the outstanding universal value of the site,” said Sushil Ghimire, Secretary at the Ministry of Tourism and Culture here today.

Until now the earliest temples have been attributed to Indian Emperor Ashoka, who in the 3rd century BC built a pillar and brick temple in Lumbini in his efforts to spread Buddhism across the region. Lumbini is a UNESCO world heritage site since 1997.

With the remains of a village dating back to as early as 1300 BC discovered a few hundred metres south of Lord Buddha”s birthplace, the history of settlement in the region has been pushed back by a thousand years.

“For the first time in South Asia, excavations have revealed a pre-Ashokan temple of brick, which itself was built over an earlier structure made of timber,” said Robin Coningham of UK”s Durham University, who co-directed international experts in the months-long excavations that concluded recently.

“These two discoveries are great steps which helps us to better understand the origin of Lord Buddha”s life and the spiritual importance of Lumbini,” said Acharya Karma Sango Sherpa, vice president for the Lumbini Development Trust.

A combined team of Nepalese and international experts worked in the excavations under a UNESCO project funded by Japan.

The town of Lumbini in Nepal is where the Buddha was born as Prince Gautama Siddhartha, before achieving enlightenment more than 2,500 years ago. Lumbini was where the Buddha lived until the age of 29.

China has recently undertaken a project worth USD 3 billion to transform Lumbini into a premier place of pilgrimage for Buddhists from around the world, raising concerns in India as the small town is situated close to the Indian border.

Pre-Ashokan shrine discovered in Lumbini

Last Updated At: 2013-07-08 12:02 AM

THT
The excavation site on the premises of Maya Devi Temple in Lumbini, from where ruins of an ancient shrine were unearthed.
HIMALAYAN NEWS SERVICE
History-defying discoveries • Excavations have revealed a pre-Ashokan temple of brick‚ which itself was built over a wooden structure • Older remains of a village dating back to as early as 1300 BC were found a few hundred metres south of Lord Buddha’s birthplace
KATHMANDU: New excavations on the premises of Maya Devi Temple in Lumbini have unearthed ruins of a thriving village with a shrine, dating back more than 1,000 years before Emperor Ashoka built monuments there to spread Buddhism, extending the history of the site to a much earlier date than previously thought.

Until now, the earliest Buddhist temples have been attributed to Emperor Ashoka, who built a pillar and a brick temple in Lumbini in third century BC in his endeavour to spread Buddhism across the region.

“For the first time in South Asia, excavations have revealed a pre-Ashokan temple of brick, which itself was built over a wooden structure,” revealed Prof Robin Coningham of Durham University in UK, who co-directed a team of Nepali and international experts together with Kosh Prasad Acharya, at a press conference in Kathmandu today.

Coningham also said that even older remains of a village dating back to as early as 1300 BC were found a few hundred metres south of Lord Buddha’s birthplace, pushing the date of the

settlement of the region back by a thousand years.

“We have now very robust proof that Lumbini’s history extends far before the visit of Emperor Ashoka. The government of Nepal will step up its efforts to preserve the outstanding universal value of the site,” says Sushil Ghimire, Secretary of the Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Civil Aviation.

“These two discoveries are giant steps, which help us to better understand the origins of Lord Buddha’s life and the spiritual importance of Lumbini,” says Acharya Karma Sango Sherpa, the vice-chair the Lumbini Development Trust that looks after the preservation and management of the site.

The team worked within the framework of a UNESCO project funded by the Government of Japan. The first phase of the project was completed this month in Lumbini, a UNESCO World Heritage site since 1997. “I am pleased that the project that the UNESCO has implemented in close cooperation with the Lumbini Development Trust and the Department of Archaeology has resulted in such important discoveries,” says Axel Plathe, Head of the UNESCO Office in Kathmandu and UNESCO Representative to Nepal. “Japan is honoured to have been able to contribute to the success of this flagship project,” says Kunio Takahashi, the Ambassador of Japan to Nepal.

Pre-Ashoka structures in Lumbini

KATHMANDU, JUL 08 -
New excavations within the Maya Devi temple of Buddha’s birthplace in Lumbini have revealed a sequence of startling archaeological evidences of human settlement dating back to at least 1300 BC in the pre-Buddha era.
Experts say no settled society as old as this one has ever been found in the Tarai belt of Nepal, which also stretches to several locations in North India, moving along the banks of Ganges River. The earlier human movements located in the region were the groups of hunter-gatherers, say archaeologists involved in the recent excavation project.
The three-year excavation project, headed jointly by Unesco and the government of Japan, came across a “village-like settlement” 4.5 metres underneath the ground some 200 metres to the south of the Mayadevi temple stands at present.
The ancient village, which currently has the area police office on surface, gives the picture of a settled lifestyle and culture that was different from the trend of hunting and gathering, which was popular in other regions of the Tarai belt during that time. Houses made of bricks and clay and the cultivated land in social structure have been traced. According to archaeologist Robin Coningham of Durham University, UK, the society seems to have settled on the bank of a river, a trace of which has also been identified underground.
Further fortifying the evidence of a pre-Buddha-era settlement in the area surrounding Mayadevi temple, researchers have also come across a vertical sequence of two different temples built beneath a Ashoka-era temple built in around 250 BC, which lies on the premises of the present-day Mayadevi temple.
According to Prof Coningham, the temple at the bottom was made of clay and timber. There is one more brick-made temple standing over the one at the bottom. The third one in the sequence is the Ashoka-era temple built of brick and timber. Although the temples represent three different eras, they have structural similarities. The rectangular temples covering an area of 26×21 metres have similar architectures. All three temples look like a walled courtyard and none of them has a ceiling.
“Most Buddha-era documentations are not older than the first or second century AD,” he said. “The structures we have come across could be the milestones for further studies.
The temples built in vertical sequence also hints at the people’s religious life before the era of Indian emperor Ashoka.”
The vital findings meanwhile have come as a pool of proven logics for the government to claim Lumbini to be the authentic birthplace of Buddha. “This is a ground breaking finding in exploration of Buddha-related historical evidences. The settlement that dates back to the pre-Buddha era clearly denotes that a village already existed here,” said Ves Narayan Dahal, director general at the Department of Archaeology. “It was in  the same village where Buddha was born.”
The excavation programme, which started in July 2010, was the Unesco project funded by Japan for the preservation of the world cultural heritage.
Head of the Unesco office in Kathmandu Axel Plathe acclaimed the successful excavation project saying that the findings would be the doorway to further important studies in the future.
Japanese Ambassador to Nepal Kunio Takahashi echoed Plathe, expressing Japan’s honour to have been able to contribute to the success of the project. He said that the second phase of the excavation project would be launched soon.
http://ekantipur.com/2013/07/08/top-story/unearthed-pre-ashoka-structures-in-lumbini/374463.html

Published On:Sunday, April 28, 2013
Posted by Sri Lanka Guardian

Lord Buddha, Buddhism And Its Pervasiveness In The World

| by Dirgha Raj Prasai
 
( April 28, 2013, Kathmandu, Sri Lanka Guardian) Gautam Buddha was born in Lumbini in the 6th century BC in mid Tarai, Nepal. Nepal has been a pious and holy land for all Buddhists as well as all kinds of religious men and women. Buddha has guided human society on the path of peace, non-violence and prosperous thinking. Gautam Buddha meditated at Sarnath-Banarash and acquired the Light of Knowledge (Mokchya) under the holy fig-tree at Gaya, which is now called Buddha Gaya.
A Nepalese scholar Rupesh Shrestha writes-The term Buddha means “Enlightened One”, and signifies that the person to whom it is applied has solved the riddle of existence, and discovered the doctrine for the cessation of misery. Lord Buddha propounded Hinayana, a simple religion in which he followed to a large extent. This was a direct and simple philosophy that appealed to the masses.
Geographically, historically and politically, Nepal occupies a position in between two great empires of India and China and has drunk deeply from the two culturally rich springs, drawing inspirations from both its grand neighbors, as the political current ebbed or flowed- an influence clearly illustrated in the building styles of Nepal. In addition, there is the religious, cultural and philosophical effect of that great tide of Buddhism, which swept through the continent of Asia.
The descriptions of famous ancient Chinese pilgrims, Huian Tsang (who traveled through India between AD 629 & 645) and Fa Hein (who traveled between AD 400 & AD 414) indicate to this area, saying, ‘Lumbini, where the Lord was born, is a piece of heaven on earth where one could see the snowy mountains amidst a splendid garden embedded with Stupas and monasteries.’
An English writer H.A. Oldfield has written- There are about 2000 Buddhist Shrines in the Kathmandu Valley.The majority of those are Chaityas. The Buddhist of Nepal has been adopting several Hindu deities as part of the religious behavior. I have included the opinions of many researchers as Ram Kumar Shrestha, Min Bahadur Shakya, Dr. Tulsiram Baidha V.K Manandhar, Dr.Shanker Thapa, Dr. Tilak Shrestha, and others .
DR. Tilak Shrestha writes-’The ethnic politics and Dharmic ignorance create non-existing problems. In the given setup, to assign Bahun, Pradhan and Kirati traditions into Hindu camp and Tuladhar, Bajracharya, Shakya, Sherpas & Tamang, Some Gurungs, Magars, Tharus, traditions into Buddhist camp is the outcome of serious comedy. Shaiva and Bauddha Religion are very similar emphasizing knowledge and meditation. The difference is that Shaiva begins with the assumption of ‘Brahma’ as the ultimate reality. The world as we know is one of its manifestations. Bauddha remains empirical and makes no assumptions. Though the goal is to go beyond emancipation, the discipline is within the direct understanding and experience of an individual in the world as it is. For Baudha Dharma the ‘Bodhi’ (Brahma) is the result of the empirical finding, not a priori. One of the philosophers of the middle age Shankaracharya was an Adwaita (Non-duel) scholar and debated mainly with Mimamsa school of Darshan. He also debated with Jaina, Shaiva and Baudha scholars. While Shankaracharya is given credit for the defeat of Buddhism in Hindu literature, he was in fact active after Buddhism had almost entirely faded from prominence. In particular, he was not a contemporary of the last great Indian Buddhist philosopher, Dharmakirti.
‘Buddhism is a major break through within the long traditions of Hinduism. That is Buddha achieved Nirvana without depending on supra-humanity or divinity. The central message of Buddha is that an individual can achieve salvation by working within the human faculty. All of Buddha’s teachings and analyses are within rational self-examination of the world including one’s mind. Buddhism is not political or social grouping. It is an inner discipline, similar to mathematics or music, practicable by any body regardless of their religious or other backgrounds.’ Buddha dharma is more rigorous. Its root in Hinduism is symbolized by ‘OM.’ the ‘OM’ is the symbol of ‘Brahman’ in Adwaita, ‘Godhead’ in Dwaita and ‘Bodhi’ in Buddhism. The most repeated Buddhist mantra is ‘OM mani padme hum’ or the ‘goodness comes out of goodness. The greatness of Buddha is that he is able to bring many of the truths, which were considered purely a matter of faith and revelation, within the realm of rational deduction.
Buddhism is not merely a religion but a way of life; its intrinsic values teach all to be better human and to serve humanity. Buddhism is the religion which is practiced to gain enlightenment. Lord Buddha who propounded Buddhism is widely revered with guiding, the entire human society, towards the path of peace, compassion, non-violence and disciplined life.
When Shankaracharya came north to the intellectual centers there, he borrowed many of the ideas that had been formulated by Buddhist philosophers of the past. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adi_Shankara)” The unity of the three principal Dharmas of Hinduism in Nepal – Buddhism (Buddha), Shaiva (Nilkantha) and Vaishnav (Narayan) is beautifully given in the temple located in Kathmandu valley, which we lovingly call – ‘Budha Nilkantha Narayan.’ The great contribution for the spread of Buddhism with definition of homely environment and Vikshus (begging alms) disseminated Buddhism was made by Shankaracharya. The opinion, doctrine and ethics strengthened Buddhism. Thus, Shankaracharya was not averse to real Buddhism.
Due to the Nepalese princess Brikuti who married with the King of China- the famous Shronchan Gompo, speeded the Buddhism and the craftsman Araniko who built numerous famous Buddhist statues in China and Tibet. From the time of Shronchan Gompo, Buddhism became gradually popular in China, Srilanka, Burma Thiland, Japan, and Mongolia etc. South Asia expert associated with China Institute of Contemporary international Relations Professor Ma Hali expresses- ‘There are great many Buddhists in China and they want to visit Buddha’s birth place in Lumbini. If Lunbini projest could see the light of the today, this would be really good for Nepal and China.’ 21 June 2012. Prof.Shanker Thapa writes-’The expansion of Buddhism in China led to the construction of vast number of Buddhist temples with expanded structures and architectural designs. They are serene and speculators in designs and colorful in pattern. Liuza Hui-neng Temple is one of the important Buddhist temples in South China that has alive.’
In ancient time, Manjushree, came to Nepal from greater ancient China and made the Katmandu Valley habitable by draining out of the water as a lake in Kathmandu Valley, and started a new civilization. Prof. Dr.Triratna Manandhar writes-’ In fifth century A.D. Faxan, a Buddhist monk and scholar from China visited Kapilvastu and Lumbini. His visit was followed by the visit of Nepali Buddhist scholar Buddhabhadra, to China, Faxian and Buddhabhadra collaborated to translating some of the Buddhist Sanskrit texts into Chinese which staying at monastery in China. In the seventh century A.D. Xuan-Zang visited Lumbini, Kapilvastu and Kathmandu Vally, and left a short description of Nepal, which gives a short glimpse of Mahayana and Therabad Budhism in Nepal during ancient period. Sino-Nepali relations revived in the 13th Century when Kublai Khan invited a team of artists from Nepal to erect a golden Stupa. A Nepali team led by Arniko visited China and constructed golden pagoda-styled monasteries in Tibet and China to the satisfaction of the Chinese Emperor. Arniko was given a high post in China, and after his death, his sons continued to work in China. Nepal Kings and Prime minister were decorated by Chinese titles. Rana Bahadur Shah got the Chinese title of ‘Ertini Wang’ and Bahadur Shah- ‘Dhung’. Jang Bahadur received a new Chinese title- Thong Ling Pimma Ko Kang Shang.’ Then, we are maintaining the cordial relation between Nepal and China.
Medieval China learned and gained the Buddhism- ‘the way of peaceful life.’ Fa-xian, a famous monk visited the Buddha’s birth place. His account on Lumbini -’Record of Buddhist Kingdom.’ is applied as a useful historical asset. A Chinese scholar-Xuan-zhang visited 636 Kapilvastu and his traveling accounts are known as historical knowledge’s. Lumbini, the holy pilgrimage had and has been attracting the Chinese monks to visit. The reality is that the Chinese monks contributed to preach Buddhism in China, India, south Asia Burma, Shilanka, Afhaganistan and the western world also. The monks preached translating the Sanskrit sermons of the Buddhism.The Tibetan Buddhism was developed as the most influential Buddhist heritage. Nepal and China have a long history of cultural relations.
In 1895, a German Archaeologist Dr. A. Fuhrer, An Indian researcher Dr. P.C. Mukargee and Nepalese Khadga Shamshere discovered the missing pillar which was set up by the Maurya emperor of India, Ashoka where Gautam Buddha was born-the most visible landmark of the Sacred Garden.The historic importance of the pillar is evidenced by the inscription engraved in the pillar (in Brahmi script).From excavations it has been found that the Ashokan pillar stands on its original base of unborn brick platform which concludes that the Pillar is at its original location.
In 1967, United Nations Secretary General, U Thant (himself a Burmese Buddhist), visited Lumbini and made an appeal in front of the international community for assistance to maintain and improve the pitiable plight of this world famous pilgrimage site. Suggestions of development of Lumbini as an international pilgrimage and tourist centre then came into light. And since the implementation of the Master Plan for the development of Lumbini, prepared by Prof. Kenzo Tange in 1978, Lumbini has been a marked scene for development, both as an international pilgrimage as well as a tourist centre.
Lumbini was then enrolled in the World Heritage Site in 1997 AD. It must also be mentioned here that UNESCO too has published a report stating that there have been some activities which violate the basic essence of the Master Plan. For instance, the Peace Stupa in the Lumbini Center is built entirely against the Master Plan and violates its spiritual and technical aspects. It is now seen as a counter point of the Ashok Pillar which in its absurdity has affected monumentalize and spiritualism brought about by the Pillar.
A scholar Ram Kumar Shrestha writes- ‘Ashoka Pillar built in 300 BC by Indian Emperor Ashok during his pilgrimage to the birthplace of Buddha still stands Lumbini. A thorough excavation and investigation near the Ashok Pillar has found the Nativity Stone that was laid down to mark the Buddha’s birthplace. An international team of archaeologists has begun a three-year survey, coordinated by the UNESCO of the archaeological ruins of Lumbini, the birthplace of Buddha in Nepal. The team of archaeologists, including experts from Nepal’s Department of Archaeology and the Lumbini Development Trust, is directed by Robin Coningham, UNESCO Archaeological Expert and Professor of Archaeology, University of Durham. The UNESCO, after careful examination all facts and evidences, has already recognized Lumbini as the Buddha’s birthplace and a World Heritage Site’.
The late King Mahendra had visited Lumbini and advised the government officers to regard and secure the Buddha’s land. King Birendra expressed-’Although Gautama Buddha was born in Nepal, he belonged essentially to the whole world and to all times. He blazed a trail leading humanity to cast off parochialism and seek liberation and enlightenment. For us in Nepal, the way of life which Buddha practiced and propagated has remained an inextricable part of our cultural heritage. Nepalese civilization has brought about a marriage between Hinduism and Buddhism making them inseparable.’
Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon says in his message- 17 May 2011 Buddha’s birthday 2555-’ Buddha’s teachings can guide our efforts to resolve the severe problems facing today’s. His injunction against the three poisons of greed, anger and ignorance is especially relevant to multilateral efforts to overcome the hunger that need. Let us respect all religions. And let us work for the well-being of all people essay affects nearly a billion people in a world of plenty, the brutal violence that takes millions of lives each year, and the senseless environmental damage that human cause to our only home, the planet Earth.’
The Buddhism changed the thinking and behaving of human life. We can see the great Stupa in Kathmandu. The ancient Stupa is one of the largest in The Stupa is on the ancient trade route from Tibet which enters the Kathmandu Valley by the village of Sankhu in the northeast corner, passes by Boudnath Stupa to the ancient and smaller stupa of Cā-bahī (often called ‘Little Boudnath’). The Boudhanath Stupa in Kathmandu, Nepal is steeped in history and can offer any visitor a truly magical experience that will last a lifetime. The Stupa itself is a large white dome, or Mandala ( greater Area), topped by a pinnacle with eyes to denote the Principal Lord Buddha watching over us; a third eye for wisdom; the nose a Sanskrit number 1 to mean wholeness, and no ears or mouth so evil cannot be heard or spoken. The five elements – water, earth, air, fire and ether are evident in the thousands of colorful prayer flags adorning the whole site. These are blue, green, white, red and yellow, and each contain a prayer to be blown away by the wind. Visitors include the many maroon robed nuns and priests from Tibet, the yellow from China and Japan, and the (literal) saffron clad devotees from Nepal and India. Their early morning devotional procession is awesome. They wave the Mane inscribed Sanskrit Mantra ( hymn)-’OM Mani Padme Hum.’There are a great number of mountain Sherpas and Tibetans visible, and Nepalese and foreign tourists from all over the world. The stall and shop holders and restaurant staff are very friendly and honest Nepalese and Tibetan folk, just waiting to give you a smile. http://www.suite101.com/content/
A Nepalese Scholar Mr. Kishore Sherchand writes- ‘Buddhism in the West’- ‘According to several studies, Buddhism was almost unknown to USA 150 years ago. Large scale Chinese immigrants in 1850s and Japanese in late 1880s began to arrive, and from Korea around 1903. Immigration was at first primarily to Hawaii. Populations from other Asian Buddhist countries followed, and in each case, the new communities established Buddhist temples and organizations. Thousands Buddhists temples and practice centers are estimated to have been established. The first Buddhist temple in America was built in 1853 in San Francisco by the Sze Yap Company, a Chinese American fraternal society. California’s Hsi Lai Temple is one of the largest Buddhist temples covering 15 acres (61,000 m²). The City of Ten Thousand Buddhas is geographically the largest Buddhist community in the US located in Talmage, California covering over 480 acres (1.9 km2) of land.
Buddhism advocates the unification of faith and wisdom. Faith is characterized by the sentiments of respect and of inspiration by an ideal. Faith in Buddhism is developed through contemplation and investigation so that the characteristics of truthfulness, righteousness, and efficacy of the ideal in which one develops faith, can be understood and revealed. Cultivation of faith and wisdom as a unity in Buddhism, unlike other religions, involves several stages, 1. Faith without prejudice 2. Faith with profound understanding 3. Faith with endeavor 4. Faith with realization. Otherwise, faith without wisdom will develop ignorance and wisdom without faith will develop a perverted view. And the most outstanding characteristic of wisdom is free thought and its operative functions include understanding and cognition.”
Buddhism in the West has taken a turning point making more appealing to the western people in pursuit of practicing Buddhism. The West has developed it into a system that leads to finding a way of understanding cause and relationship. Many American youths question whether Buddhism is a Religion or a Philosophy. Because Siddhartha Gautama did not say himself Son of God (Jesus Christ), Prophet of God (Muhammad) or God of God (Shiva). Buddhism does not preach the existence of God. Many of the Westerns youths view and reject their own religious beliefs in God as the supreme power. They perhaps try to think in the line of what Buddha said twenty five hundred years ago or Buddhism says, “Anybody can be Buddha (Enlightened one) if one follows those Four Noble Truths and Eightfold paths.”
A great scientist Albert Einstein said- “The religion of the future will be a cosmic religion. It should transcend personal God and avoid dogma and theology. Covering both the natural and the spiritual, it should be based on a religious sense arising from the experience of all things natural and spiritual as a meaningful unity. Buddhism answers this description. If there is any religion that could cope with modern scientific needs it would be Buddhism”. It is very praiseworthy preaches of Gautam Buddha that he had messaged to all mankind to follow the path of – Noble truth –(‘Samyak’): such as-Right View; Right Thought; Right Speech; Right Conduct; Right Livelihood; Right Effort; Right Mindfulness; Right Concentration. Similarly, a) Suffering is common – Birth, Sickness, Old age, Death etc. b) Cause of Suffering – ignorance and greed) c) End of Suffering – to cut off greed and ignorance. d) Path to end Suffering –Noble Path is the way to end suffering. ‘No killing, No stealing, No sexual misconduct, No lying, No intoxicants are the Buddha’s Panchshila.’
A top Nepalese Scholar Ram Kumar Shreatha writes-’ Buddha taught that the world must be thought of in procedural terms and not in terms of things or substances. This is the understanding that any phenomenon exists only because of the existence of other phenomena in an amazingly complex web of cause and effect covering past, present and future and this seems to be the basic of Newton?s law of Motion, ?To every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction?. The Buddha taught that peaceful minds lead to peaceful speech and peaceful actions. If the minds of living beings are at peace, the world will be at peace. Buddhists believe that the minds of all living beings are totally interconnected and interrelated, whether they are consciously aware of it or not. If we concentrate on putting our own minds at peace, then we can broadcast peace mentally and generate peace through our actions. We should use a peaceful mind to act for peace in the world.’
The religious structure of Nepalese society is formally Hindu; but here and only here the interplay of peoples and their religious traditions has produced a rich fusion of Hindu and Buddhist faiths. It is common for both Hindus and Buddhists to worship at the same shrine, for many gods and saints are cross-over, often known by a different name but holding the same attributes. The original inhabitants of the valley were animists, a tradition which survives in the multitude of spirits, demons, local deities, and stones which receive dutiful worship to this day. Hindu and Buddhist traditions adapted from the pre-existing animist practices and from each other. Indeed, in the medieval period, when both religions’ practice adopted mystical, Tantric traditions, they were almost indistinguishable from each other. Nepal’s History and Religions Nepal is a rich and complex mix of different cultures and traditions, melded over thousands of years into a unique whole.
Prithvi Narayan Shah, the unifier of the ‘Greater Nepal’, is the pride of Nepalese people who saved the Hindu and Buddhism in Nepal, in time. It was almost 100 years before unification of Germany (1868), Italy (1868), and the restoration of the Meiji (Japan, 1868) in which America was also under British dependency, that Prithvi Narayan Shah had already unified (1768) 54 small fiefdoms to build a large, expanded and greater Nepal. But after the movement of April 2006 and the party leaders Congress, UML and Maoists came to power they smashed the statue of the great King, contempt and insulted him and called off the birth anniversary of the late king as a day of national unity. Why? If they are Nepalese, they should answer the question.
The site is now being developed as a Buddhist pilgrimage centre, where the archaeological remains associated with the birth of the Lord Buddha form a central feature. Lumbinī-Nepal is a Buddhist pilgrimage site in the Rupandehi district of Nepal, near the Indian border. It is the place where Queen Mayadevi is said to have given birth to Siddhartha Gautam, who as the Buddha founded the Buddhist tradition. Records made by the Chinese pilgrim Fa Xian were also used in the process of identifying this religiously acclaimed site. The holy site of Lumbini has ruins of ancient monasteries, a sacred Bodhi tree, an ancient bathing pond, the Ashoka pillar and the Mayadevi temple. The truth, however is that Buddha was born at Lumbini in present Rupandehi district of western Terai region in Nepal. There are some antagonistic so-called politicians in Nepal; some against of Christian are habituated to exploit our national culture, religions and identities.
Almost, the Nepalese Communists are active to minimize the immortality of Hinduism and Buddhism. The communist old-leader Mohan Bikram Sing wants to dismiss the existence of Buddha and he wrote that Buddha was burn in Orissa (India) but not in Nepal. (See: Kantipur B.S.2059 Bhadra 19) What is that means? But, the renowned historian of India and native Orrisan Prof. Karuna Sagar Behera has been quoted as saying “The Buddha was neither born in Orissa nor visited the place during his lifetime”[http://tinyurl.com/yl3jlyv Similarly, Another communist, the Maoist leader Dr. Baburam Bhattarai stressed –’Buddha is our Nepalese glory. Lord Buddha held very progressive view during his time and it is needed to expand the Buddhist philosophy across the world.’(‘Buddhism’-book launching ceremony- Nepal-China Society, 12 December 2010)
A country’s existence and prestige can gradually be eroded by finishing off its faith and belief tradition and culture and the creator of nation. If anyone wants the assurance of integrity and lasting peace in this country, one must not be confused about the country’s century’s old customs and religious prestige as well as the builder of nationality and unity.
Having diverse cohesive communities, Nepal has built up as a nation in a long historical process. But, at present why the peaceful country where Lord Buddha was born has become the venue of confrontations? The main causes of the crisis is the abolishing our culture and traditions. Some are going to abolish the monarchy-the creator and protector of Hindu and Buddhism. So, for the sake of Nepalese identity, Hindus and Buddhism and the people-oriented Monarchy must be reinstated.

http://www.srilankaguardian.org/2013/04/lord-buddha-buddhism-and-its.html

Bali’s ‘largest’ ancient Hindu temple discovered

See also: http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2012/10/bali-yatra-cultural-historical-memory.htmlBali Yatra – cultural-historical memory of Indian Ocean nations

Workers discover remains of ancient Hindu temple on Indonesia’s resort island of Bali
Published October 26, 2012
Associated Press

BALI, Indonesia – An archaeologist says a structure that is believed to be the remains of an ancient Hindu temple has been unearthed on Indonesia’s resort island of Bali.
Wayan Swantika of the local archaeology agency says workers digging a drainage basin last week in eastern Denpasar, Bali’s capital, at first discovered a large stone about 1 meter (3 feet) underground.

Excavation teams have since uncovered a 57-meter (62-yard) structure that is believed to be the temple’s foundation.

The find is still being analyzed, but given the shape and characteristics of the materials used, Swantika says he believes it was built sometime between the 13th and 15th centuries. He added that it is also thought to be the largest ancient temple ever discovered in Bali.

http://www.foxnews.com/world/2012/10/26/workers-discover-remains-ancient-hindu-temple-on-indonesia-resort-island-bali/

Bali’s ‘largest’ ancient Hindu temple discovered
AFP | Thu, Oct 25 2012

DENPASAR, Indonesia – Construction workers in Bali have discovered what is thought to be the biggest ancient Hindu temple ever found on the Indonesian island, archaeologists said.

The workers were digging a drain in the island’s capital Denpasar at a Hindu study centre when they came across the remains of the stone temple.

They reported the discovery to the Bali archaeology office, which then unearthed substantial foundations of a structure that the excavation team believes dates from around the 13th to 15th centuries.

“We think this is the biggest ancient Hindu temple ever discovered in Bali,” Wayan Suantika, the head of the team, said late Wednesday.

He said the excavation was still in progress and the team did not yet know whether enough stones would be unearthed to allow them to reconstruct the temple.

The construction workers on Sunday found the first stone one metre (yard) underground, which was one metre long, 40 centimetres (16 inches) deep and 40 wide, said Ida Resi Bujangga Wisnawa Ganda Kusuma, owner of the Hindu centre.

The excavation team then found what they believe is the foundation of the structure’s 20-metre-long east wing, Suantika said.

The popular resort island is a pocket of Hindu culture in a country with the biggest Muslim population in the world.

http://www.relax.com.sg/relax/news/1386586/Bali_s_largest_ancient_Hindu_temple_discovered.html

BANGKOK, October 26, 2012
Bali’s biggest Hindu temple discovered

Archaeologists believe they have discovered the largest ancient Hindu temple ever found in the Indonesian island of Bali.
Archaeologists excavating the remains of an ancient Hindu temle in Denspasar on Indonesia’s Bali island Photo: AFP

Construction workers were digging a new drainage basin near a Hindu learning centre on Jalan Trengguli, in East Denpasar, when their tools struck a large stone structure one metre underground, the Jakarta Globe reported.

The crew then excavated a large stone plate, the first of many discovered at the site.

“I immediately reported the finding to the [local] archaeology office,” said Ida Resi Bujangga, the owner of the centre, on Wednesday.

The Denpasar Archeology Agency took over the excavation and uncovered an 11-metre-long structure.

“We will continue the excavation until [the whole structure is revealed],” said Wayan Suantika, an official with the agency.

Suantika told reporters that judging by the square structure’s similarity to ancient temples found in East Java, it likely dates back to the 14th Century, the paper said.

“The strengthening layers inbetween the stone plates were another characteristic usually found in 13th or 14th Century [structures],” he said. PTI

http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-in-school/balis-biggest-hindu-temple-discovered/article4032690.ece

Largest ancient Hindu temple discovered in Indonesia
Construction workers in Bali have discovered what is thought to be the biggest ancient Hindu temple ever found on the Indonesian island, archaeologists said.

6:39AM BST 25 Oct 2012

The workers were digging a drain in the island’s capital Denpasar at a Hindu study centre when they came across the remains of the stone temple.

They reported the discovery to the Bali archaeology office, which then unearthed substantial foundations of a structure that the excavation team believes dates from around the 13th to 15th centuries.

“We think this is the biggest ancient Hindu temple ever discovered in Bali,” Wayan Suantika, the head of the team, said late Wednesday.

He said the excavation was still in progress and the team did not yet know whether enough stones would be unearthed to allow them to reconstruct the temple.

The construction workers on Sunday found the first stone one metre underground, which was one metre long, 40 centimetres deep and 40 wide, said Ida Resi Bujangga Wisnawa Ganda Kusuma, owner of the Hindu centre.

The excavation team then found what they believe is the foundation of the structure’s 20-metre-long east wing, Suantika said.

The popular resort island is a pocket of Hindu culture in a country with the biggest Muslim population in the world.

Source: agencies
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/indonesia/9632337/Largest-ancient-Hindu-temple-discovered-in-Indonesia.html

Ancient Hindu temple discovered in Bali
AFP | 8 hours ago

DENPASAR: Construction workers in Bali have discovered what is thought to be the biggest ancient Hindu temple ever found on the Indonesian island, archaeologists said.

The workers were digging a drain in the island’s capital Denpasar at a Hindu study centre when they came across the remains of the stone temple.

They reported the discovery to the Bali archaeology office, which then unearthed substantial foundations of a structure that the excavation team believes dates from around the 13th to 15th centuries.

“We think this is the biggest ancient Hindu temple ever discovered in Bali,” Wayan Suantika, the head of the team, said late Wednesday.

He said the excavation was still in progress and the team did not yet know whether enough stones would be unearthed to allow them to reconstruct the temple.

The construction workers on Sunday found the first stone one metre (yard) underground, which was one metre long, 40 centimetres (16 inches) deep and 40 wide, said Ida Resi Bujangga Wisnawa Ganda Kusuma, owner of the Hindu centre.

The excavation team then found what they believe is the foundation of the structure’s 20-metre-long east wing, Suantika said.

The popular resort island is a pocket of Hindu culture in a country with the biggest Muslim population in the world.

http://dawn.com/2012/10/26/ancient-hindu-temple-discovered-in-bali/

Bali’s largest Hindu temple from 14th Century discovered
PTI Oct 25, 2012, 05.26PM IST

BANGKOK: Archaeologists believe they have discovered the largest ancient Hindu temple ever found in the Indonesian island of Bali.

Construction workers were digging a new drainage basin near a Hindu learning center on Jalan Trengguli, in East Denpasar, when their tools struck a large stone structure one metre underground, the Jakarta Globe reported.

The crew then excavated a large stone plate, the first of many discovered at the site.

“I immediately reported the finding to the [local] archaeology office,” said Ida Resi Bujangga, the owner of the center, yesterday.

The Denpasar Archeology Agency took over the excavation and uncovered an 11-metre-long structure.

“We will continue the excavation until [the whole structure is revealed],” said Wayan Suantika, an official with the agency.

Suantika told reporters that judging by the square structure’s similarity to ancient temples found in East Java, it likely dates back to the 14th Century, the paper said.

“The strengthener layers in between the stone plates were another characteristic usually found in 13th or 14th Century [structures],” he said.

Local residents also found ceramic wares and stone plates at the site, Suantika said.

“This discovery is the largest stone temple found in Bali,” he added.

The Wasa Temple, which was uncovered in Gianyar in 1986, is 11 metres long and 10 metres wide.

Bali archaeologists later found buried 16 sarcophaguses in 2010 in Gianyar.

The island is home to most of the Hindus in Indonesia, a country with the world’s biggest Muslim population.

http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2012-10-25/news/34730043_1_hindu-temple-gianyar-bali

This general view shows the reconstructed Wasan temple (L) in the village of Sukawati in Bali on October 25, 2012, which is currently the biggest ancient Hindu temple ever unearthed on Bali, reconstructed after its discovery in 1986. Construction workers in Bali have discovered what is thought to be a bigger ancient Hindu temple, the biggest ever found on the Indonesian island in Denpasar, archaeologists said on October 25.

BALI, Indonesia — An archaeologist says a structure that is believed to be the remains of an ancient Hindu temple has been unearthed on Indonesia’s resort island of Bali.

Wayan Swantika of the local archaeology agency says workers digging a drainage basin last week in eastern Denpasar, Bali’s capital, at first discovered a large stone about 1 meter (3 feet) underground.

Excavation teams have since uncovered a 57-meter (62-yard) structure that is believed to be the temple’s foundation.

The find is still being analyzed, but given the shape and characteristics of the materials used, Swantika says he believes it was built sometime between the 13th and 15th centuries. He added that it is also thought to be the largest ancient temple ever discovered in Bali.

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/10/26/ancient-hindu-temple-bali-discovery_n_2022405.html

Indonesia’s largest Hindu temple discovered

Archeologists believe that they’ve discovered the biggest and most archaic Hindu temple ever found in Indonesia.

According to the reports, the construction workers were burrowing a new drainage basin near a Hindu learning center in Denpasar when they stumbled upon the ruins of the temple.

The new discovery was reported to the Bali archaeology office, which then disinterred sizeable foundations of a structure. The newly discovered stone temple is believed to be 500-700 years old.

“We think this is the biggest ancient Hindu temple ever discovered in Bali,” the head of excavation team, Wayan Suantika said.

Wayan told the source judging by that similarity of the temple with other similar structures, it likely dates back to the fourteenth century.

“The strengthener layers in between the stone plates were another characteristic usually found in 13th or 14th Century” he said.

Suantika further told that quarry was still underway and the team didn’t know so far whether enough remains of the temple would be exhumed to let them re-erect the structure.

Speaking about the discovery, owner of the Hindu study center Ida Resi Bujangga Wisnawa Ganda Kusuma told; the workers found the first stone one meter (yard) underground on Sunday. The yard was one meter long, 40 centimeter deep and 40 meters wide.

The archeological investigation crew then found 20-metre-long east wing of the structure which is believed to be its foundation.

http://paknews.pk/4273/indonesias-largest-hindu-temple-discovered.html

Buddha from space—An ancient object of art made of a Chinga iron meteorite fragment

Figure 3.  Front and rear side of the “iron man.” The sculpture was chiseled from the iron meteorite, forged at the edges and the basis, and shows the Buddhist god Kubera (Vaiśravana); the scale armor was formerly gilded.

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Buddha from space—An ancient object of art made of a Chinga iron meteorite fragment

Abstract–  The fall of meteorites has been interpreted as divine messages by multitudinous cultures since prehistoric times, and meteorites are still adored as heavenly bodies. Stony meteorites were used to carve birds and other works of art; jewelry and knifes were produced of meteoritic iron for instance by the Inuit society. We here present an approximately 10.6 kg Buddhist sculpture (the “iron man”) made of an iron meteorite, which represents a particularity in religious art and meteorite science. The specific contents of the crucial main (Fe, Ni, Co) and trace (Cr, Ga, Ge) elements indicate an ataxitic iron meteorite with high Ni contents (approximately 16 wt%) and Co (approximately 0.6 wt%) that was used to produce the artifact. In addition, the platinum group elements (PGEs), as well as the internal PGE ratios, exhibit a meteoritic signature. The geochemical data of the meteorite generally match the element values known from fragments of the Chinga ataxite (ungrouped iron) meteorite strewn field discovered in 1913. The provenance of the meteorite as well as of the piece of art strongly points to the border region of eastern Siberia and Mongolia, accordingly. The sculpture possibly portrays the Buddhist god Vaiśravana and might originate in the Bon culture of the eleventh century. However, the ethnological and art historical details of the “iron man” sculpture, as well as the timing of the sculpturing, currently remain speculative.

Source: Meteoritics & Planetary Science
Volume 47, Issue 9, September 2012, Pages: 1491–1501, Elmar BUCHNER, Martin SCHMIEDER, Gero KURAT, Franz BRANDSTÄTTER, Utz KRAMAR, Theo NTAFLOS and Jörg KRÖCHERT
Article first published online : 14 SEP 2012

http://www.docstoc.com/docs/131322562/Buddha-from-space%E2%80%94An-ancient-object-of-art-made-of-a-Chinga-iron-meteorite-fragment-(Meteoritics-and-Planetary-Science-Volume-47-Issue-9-September-2012)

The politics of Karnataka’s ‘mutts’

http://www.livemint.com/2012/04/23214208/The-politics-of-Karnataka821.html

Bangalore: Congress president Sonia Gandhi will visit Karnataka for the first time in three years later this week and media reports say that she is expected to participate in the birthday celebration of Shivakumara Swami, the head of the influential Sree Siddaganga Mutt in Tumkur.

If that happens, it will only serve to highlight the importance of mutts (or monasteries) in the only south Indian state ruled by the national opposition party, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP).

Monasteries such as the Siddaganga one have always been powerful in a state where political affiliations and voting patterns are often decided by caste. For instance, in March, the pontiff of the Adichunchanagiri Mutt, revered by the predominantly agrarian Vokkaliga community, declared his support for chief minister D.V. Sadananda Gowda, a Vokkaliga himself. Immediately, a group of Vokkaliga BJP legislators distanced themselves from former chief minister B.S. Yeddyurappa’s attempts to dislodge Gowda. Yeddyurappa belongs to the Lingayat community (as does Swami).

Target audience: Shivamurthy Murugharajendra Swami, pontiff of the Murugharajendra Mutt, leads a prayer session for children enrolled at the monastery’s school in Chitradurga, Karnataka. Courtesy: Murugharajendra Mutt
In recent years, seers have even influenced policy decisions in Karnataka. In 2011, Siddhalinga Swamy, the pontiff of the Tontadarya Mutt, successfully campaigned against a proposed Posco factory. Around the same time, the state said it was abandoning a plan to acquire 2,000 acres for a special economic zone (SEZ) in Mangalore after Vishwesha Theertha, the head of the Pejawar Mutt, went on a hunger strike. The seer is now worried about the dumping of mud from the SEZ project in the Phalguni river and has promised to discuss the issue with the chief minister.
Like him, the heads of most monasteries in the state seem to realize the need to stay relevant, even if it means engaging with the political establishment. Soon after the campaign against Posco, Siddhalinga Swamy convened a meeting of around 60 like-minded seers. At the end of the meeting, the seers issued a declaration that said: “The duties of religious heads are not just limited to performing pujas in mutts, temples or other religious places. The seers should rush to help the people, when they are in dire need of it.”

The history of the mutts

Karnataka’s mutts are caste-based monasteries centred around a pontiff, in whom a lot of power is vested, and whose sphere of influence is usually restricted to a few districts (although some have a wider sphere of influence). They are different from the more modern pan-Indian religious or spiritual institutions such as those founded by Baba Ramdev, Mata Amritanandamayi or Sri Sri Ravi Shankar.

Most monasteries in Karnataka are associated with the Lingayat community. The Lingayats, also known as the Veerashaivas, trace their history to 12th century Hindu reformer Basaveshwara and, by some estimates, they have around 400 mutts in the state. (Lingayats account for around 17% of the state’s 61.1 million population.)

Lingayats eschew the practice of praying to idols in temples, and instead practise a more personal form of worship. In a forthcoming paper, Aya Ikegame, a UK-based researcher who has been studying the mutt culture in Karnataka for the past few years, writes: “The religious tradition of the Lingayats or Veerashaiva has a tendency to place a much larger emphasis on their gurus and mutts than on priests and temples.”

Over the past few decades, the state’s monasteries have grown in influence by establishing schools and colleges. “Almost all mutts have started educational institutions. Giving education was considered as part of the spirituality and social service, though some seers have also opened schools and colleges for profit,” said G.N. Mallikarjunappa, executive director of the educational arm of the 600-year-old Murugharajendra Mutt in central Karnataka.

The Murugharajendra Mutt runs around 150 educational institutions; the Suttur Mutt, 300 across Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh; and the Siddaganga Mutt (Tumkur) and the Sirigere Mutt (Chitradurga) have around 30,000 students each studying at schools and colleges they run.

There are other ways, too, by which the monasteries try to stay relevant. The Sirigere Mutt, for instance, runs a “court” every Monday to resolve disputes. And when Karnataka was ravaged by floods in 2009, the Lingayat mutts were at the forefront of the rehabilitation programme. Yeddyurappa, who was then chief minister, announced that the government would shift 226 flood-prone villages with money from the government and companies, with responsibility for the construction of new villages given to non-governmental organizations and mutts. As Ikegame writes: “…the rehabilitation works began transforming from a potlatch of generosity among gurus into a holy alliance of the state, corporates and the mutts: a new sacred public-private partnership”.

The mutts have also sought to extend their franchise to so-called backward classes. For instance, Shivamurthy Murugharajendra Swami, the pontiff of the Murugharajendra Mutt, trains individuals in Lingayat philosophy and also grants land to some of those people who belong to the backward classes, to start their own mutts that are affiliated to the main mutt. Basavaprabhu Ketheshwara Swamy, who runs a mutt for the Medana Keteshwara community, a scheduled tribe, is one such individual. “I was fortunate to have studied under Shivamurthy Swamiji, and he has given me purpose in life,” says Basavaprabhu. The results of his attempts at introducing the Lingayat way of life to his community—vegetarianism, abstinence from alcohol and education— have been mixed. “Historically, we have been non-vegetarians, and alcohol consumption has been very high. So, it’s difficult for our community to completely abandon these.”

And finally, recent politics in Karnataka has meant that the mutts are more relevant than ever.

Church and state

The state government has emerged as an unlikely benefactor for mutts targeting the backward classes. In this year’s budget, the government allotted a substantial portion of the Rs1,000 crore budget for backward castes to the mutts. In reply to a written question in the assembly last December, the state government said it had distributed Rs110 crore to these religious institutions, while spending another Rs189 crore on roads to the mutts.

While the current BJP government has been more generous than some previous governments in terms of support to mutts, especially the new ones, scholars and activists are reluctant to link this to the party’s strong Hindu ideology.

In her paper, Ikegame writes: “There is some legitimacy to the claim made by some Dalit organizations… that the welfare work accomplished by mutts during the flood rehabilitation in Karnataka contributes to the Hindutva agenda, which seeks to rebuild India as a Hindu nation and serves to aggravate communal divisions. Nevertheless, it would be unfruitful to dismiss their activities simply as communal and to paint Karnataka gurus as supporters of fanatical Hindu nationalism.”

shamsheer.y@livemint.com

Ancient Idol of Lord Vishnu found during excavation in an old village in Russia’s Volga Region

MOSCOW: An ancient Vishnu idol has been found during excavation in an old village in Russia’s Volga region, raising questions about the prevalent view on the origin of ancient Russia. The idol found in Staraya (old) Maina village dates back to VII-X century AD. Staraya Maina village in Ulyanovsk region was a highly populated city 1700 years ago, much older than Kiev, so far believed to be the mother of all Russian cities.

“We may consider it incredible, but we have ground to assert that Middle-Volga region was the original land of Ancient Rus. This is a hypothesis, but a hypothesis, which requires thorough research,” Reader of Ulyanovsk State University’s archaeology department Dr Alexander Kozhevin told state-run television Vesti .

Dr Kozhevin, who has been conducting excavation in Staraya Maina for last seven years, said that every single square metre of the surroundings of the ancient town situated on the banks of Samara, a tributary of Volga, is studded with antiques.

Prior to unearthing of the Vishnu idol, Dr Kozhevin has already found ancient coins, pendants, rings and fragments of weapons.

He believes that today’s Staraya Maina, a town of eight thousand, was ten times more populated in the ancient times. It is from here that people started moving to the Don and Dneiper rivers around the time ancient Russy built the city of Kiev, now the capital of Ukraine. An international conference is being organised later this year to study the legacy of the ancient village, which can radically change the history of ancient Russia.

Some Conclusions by others:

The discovery of an ancient Vishnu idol in an excavation in Russia only confirms certain ideas I have always had about the Vedic ancient and glorious land and culture.

The report says that the area in which the idol was found is called Staraya Maina. In the Rig Veda, there is a passage that goes, Itham ascati pasyat syantham, ekam starayath mainaa-kaalam. This translates into Staraya Maina is the name of the land of the 45 rivers (on whose banks the noble Rishis conducted the famous Horse Sacrifices), where the sun god descends into one fifty two forty seven. While the first line identifies a location, the second line talks about the exact latitude and longitude at which the solar spectrum produces interference lines at one, fifty two, and forty seven.
The extreme precision of the calculations show the advanced science of the Vedic period, and also a thorough knowledge of SI units (it has been conclusively proven that French scientists stole the system from the Indians.

The discovery of the idol confirms the location in Russia, identified in the Rig Veda as rus soviath sapthamahanagaratham (the ancient and holy land of the 722 flying vehicles). The ancient connections between the Russians and the Indians has been unequivocally confirmed. In Russian orthodox Christianity, worship is conducted very much like in Vishnu temples. The Russians refer to the feast of Vizhnyir Ekoratsya Vikhunh, directly corresponding with Vaikhunda Ekhadasi.

The Russian language also owes a lot to Sanskrit, whose origins 50,000 years ago roughly correspond with the language of the people of the Smritzyi archaeological site, along the banks of the now-dried up Vernstokhlin (Varnasatyakhalini) river system.

It is common knowledge in the archaeological community that the Parashurama Sutra, the basis of all government policy in the erstwhile Kerala kingdom of Vaazhappazhaa, contains the lines Sthulyam Kaamyunishancha kalanam brighahaha. The links between the ancient Russians and Indians almost certainly aided by the 60,00 odd scholars of the University of Vexalate (Sk. Vekhshalatha, Ru. Vekholotsla), in modern-day Central Afghanistan, in the 17th Century BCE, is said to have transferred political ideas through the land of the Vanga (Ru. Vangnya) in modern-day West Bengal.

The Vishnu idol is depicted with a hammer in one left hand while the deconglated seventh arm on the right side holds a reticulated sickle. This hammer and sickle imagery is also found in the Parashurama Sutra, conclusively placing the origin of great and popular Russian political ideology in Vedic India.

The Bringdunthaladeena Upanishad also mentions Kaamyunishcham in its list of land sacrifices, where under the directions of the King, all the land in the country was donated to the performance of sacrifices where Brahmins continuously tickled horny silk-rats (Gandharvamooshicam) until they collapsed in orgiastic exhaustion. The text also clearly identifies a group of scholars referred to as the Paalita Buryam, who oversaw the functioning of the King.

For years, western historical study dominated by Greco-Capitalists, has sought to undermine the Vedic Indian contributions to what came to be 19th and 20th Century world politics. The Greco-Capitalists also attributed the ideology of Communism to the work done by Karl Marx, one of their own. It has been well documented that Marx indeed visited Kerala and West Bengal, and had thorough understanding of the Parashurama Sutra, a copy of which he picked up in the old-book-stall near the Cochin airport. Later on, as part of the larger Greco-centric Capitalist conspiracy, Marx took all the credit himself.

In 1952 in Soviet Russia, an archaeologist, Prof. Varely Smirzkoff of Odessa University found artefacts near the ancient Belarussian town of Kozhikodz. He was the first to speculate that the ruling political ideology of his country could well have had its origins in Vedic India rather than Modern Europe. Stalin funded Smirzkoff’s research until Smirrzkoff was suddenly found to have stolen over 500,000 paper clips from work over the course of his tenure at Odessa University. He was sent to Siberia, and with him went almost all academic proof that would have certainly brought Russia and India closer together.

This recent discovery should resurrect the pioneering work started by Prof. Varely Smirzkoff, who died of Contracted Poloniumitis of the nose, in 1964.

http://www.globalhinduism.com/article/2012/01/ancient-idol-of-lord-vishnu-found-during-excavation-in-an-old-village-in-russias-volga-region/#.T0VQ5VHOrxE

Goat and fish as hieroglyphs of Indus script: Susa-Meluhha interactions. Meluhhan interpreter ‘may have been literate and could read the undeciphered Indus script.’

Update: Nov. 21, 2011

Susa-Meluhha interactions
http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.com/2011/11/mohenjo-daro-stupa-great-bath-modeled.htmlThis blogpost notes that the ziggurat shown on the Sit-Shamshi bronze compares with a ziggurat which might have existed in the Stupa mound of Mohenjodaro (lit. mound of the dead), indicating the veneration of ancestors in Susa and Meluhha in contemporaneous times.

 

continue reading this at http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.com/2011/11/susa-ritual-basin-decorated-with.html

Indus re-enters India, feeding Nal Sarovar, Ahmedabad – Satellite images

Satellite images show the river changed course

Indus re-enters India

Swati Bhan, Ahmedabad, Nov 14, DHNS:

The Indus or the Sindhu river, which was once synonymous with nurturing great civilisations in India, has now shifted its course and re-entered India feeding Nal Sarovar lake near Ahmedabad.

If the latest satellite images are to be believed, the development will benefit the Bhal region adjoining Ahmedabad district and the water-starved Kutch region.

Rohan Thakkar, a research student analysing the impact of climate change on water bodies of Gujarat, is the first to notice the phenomenon.

“We do have evidence that there were habitations in the Rann of Kutch and the Indus flowed in this area, but it majorly shifted its course westwards after the great earthquake in 1819,” Thakkar said and attributed the siltation in the river basin to the change.

Thakkar has been working on this research project for the past three years. The project had demonstrated that the river was dying due to siltation.

According to Y T Jasrai, Thakkar’s guide and the coordinator of the programme, the ground truthing of the research is still to be done.

“The satellite images are definitely a reason to believe that the ancient river is changing its direction towards India, more specifically to Gujarat,” he said.

“The quality of the water in Nal Sarovar lake gives us a reason to come to a conclusion about the shifting of the river’s direction towards India which generally coincides with monsoon,” Jasrai said.

Water Resource Minister Nitin Patel said they have been informed about the satellite images.

“We have instructed our officials to carry out a research on this and find out the benefits that will come with it. Once the research is completed by the department, ground truthing of water, especially at these two places, will be conducted,” said Patel.

Dr Y S Ravat, Director of the Archaeology Department, is of the opinion that a change of the course of rivers is possible and it has happened in the past also. He pointed out that there is a rise in rainfall in Gujarat in the recent years. If the present trend continues, there could be further tectonic movements which will change the course of the river.

In the past after the 1819 quake, the Allahbund came up in the northwest of Bhuj as a natural bund and stopped the flow of water into the Great Rann of Kutch, resulting in the gradual dry up of the area. The river also changed its course, he added.

http://www.deccanherald.com/content/204892/indus-re-enters-india.html